Dr. Peter S. Ross

Senior Scientist

Dr. Peter S. Ross is an internationally recognized ocean pollution expert, having published over 160 scientific articles and book chapters on pollutants of concern in the oceans, and impacts on fish, seals and whales.

He discovered the region’s killer whales to be the most ‘contaminated marine mammals in the world’ in a groundbreaking study, and recently reported on the widespread distribution of microplastics in the NE Pacific and Arctic oceans. He recently served as the Vice-President of Research at Ocean Wise, where he founded the Ocean Pollution Research Program, launched PollutionTracker and the Plastics Lab.

Prior to that, he served for 16 years as a federal Research Scientist with Fisheries and Oceans Canada. His work with priority pollutants and microplastics has led to numerous invitations to advise industry, government, the G7, the European Union, and the OECD. His work has been featured prominently in national and international media. Dr. Ross is an Adjunct Professor at the University of British Columbia and at the University of Victoria. Dr Ross is now Senior Scientist at Raincoast Conservation Foundation, where he is developing a new community-oriented Healthy Waters Program.

Dr. Peter S. Ross.


1995 Ph.D., Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. 
1990 M.Sc., Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia.
1985 B.Sc. (Honours), Biology, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario.

Scientific articles

  1. Peter S. Ross, Stephen Chastain, Ekaterina Vassilenko, Anahita Etemadifar, Sarah Zimmermann, Sarah-Ann Quesnel, Jane Eert, Eric Solomon, Shreyas Patankar, Anna M. Posacka, and Bill Williams. 2021. Pervasive distribution of polyester fibres in the Arctic Ocean is driven by Atlantic inputs. Nature Communications 12: 106: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20347-1.
  2. Ekaterina Vassilenko, Mathew Watkins, Joel Mertens, Anna M. Posacka, Shreyas Patankar, Peter S. Ross. 2020. Domestic laundry and microfiber pollution: a comprehensive assessment of fiber shedding from consumer apparel textiles. PLOS ONE (in press).
  3. A.J. Wright, C. Araujo-Wang, J.Y. Wang, P.S. Ross, J. Tougaard, R. Winkler, M.C. Marquez, F.C. Robertson, K. Fawcett Williams, R.R. Reeves. 2020. How ‘Blue’ is ‘Green’ energy? Trends in Ecology & Evolution 35: 235-244.
  4. Moore, R.C., Loseto, L., Noel, M., Etemadifar, A., Brewster, J.D., MacPhee, S., Bendell, L., Ross, P.S. 2020. Microplastics in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the Eastern Beaufort Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin 150: 110723. 
  5. Peter S. Ross, Amber Dearden, Claryana Araújo-Wang, Lars Bejder, Randall R. Reeves, Naomi Rose, Robin Winkler, Andrew Wrightand John Y. Wang. Wind energy: Extinction for Taiwanese white dolphins? Science E-Letters October 2019.
  6. G.A. Covernton, C. Pearce, H. Gurney-Smith, S. Chastain, P.S., J. Dower, S. Dudas. 2019. Size and shape matter: A preliminary analysis of microplastic sampling technique in seawater studies with implications for ecological risk assessment. Science of the Total Environment 667: 124-132.
  7. G.A. Covernton, B. Collicutt, H.J. Gurney-Smith, C.M. Pearce, J.F. Dower, P.S. Ross, S.E. Dudas. Microplastics in bivalves and their habitat in relation to shellfish aquaculture proximity in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Aquaculture Environment Interactions 11: 357-374.
  8. A. Isobe, N.T. Buenaventura, S. Chastain, S. Chavanich, A. Cózar, M.  De Lorenzo, P. Hagmann, H. Hinata, N. Kozlovskii, A.  Lusher, E. Martí, Y. Michida, J. Mu, M. Ohno, G. Potter, P.S. Ross, N. Sagawa, W.J. Shim, Y. Kyoung Song, H. Takada, T.  Tokai, T. Torii, K. Uchida, K. Vassillenko, V. Viyakarn, W. Zhang. 2019. An interlaboratory comparison exercise for the determination of microplastics in standard sample bottles. Marine Pollution Bulletin 146: 831-837.
  9. J.P. Desforges, A. Hall, B. McConnell, A. R. Asvid, J. Barber, A. Brownlow, S. De Guise, I. Eulaers, P. Jepson, R.J. Letcher, M. Levin, P.S. Ross, C. Sonne, R. Dietz. 2019. Response to L. Witting: PCBs still a major risk for global killer whale populations. Marine Mammal Science 35: 1201-1206.
  10. J-P Desforges, A. Hall, B. McConnell, A.R. Asvid, J.L. Barber, A. Brownlow, S. De Guise, I. Eulaers, P.D. Jepson, R.J. Letcher, M. Levin, P.S. Ross, F. Samarra, G. Víkingson, C. Sonne, R. Dietz. 2018. Predicting global killer whale population collapse from PCB pollution. Science 361: 1373-1376.
  11. G.A. Covernton, B. Collicutt, H. Gurney-Smith, C. Pearce, J. Dower, P.S. Ross, S. Dudas. 2019. Microplastics in bivalves and their habitat in relation to shellfish aquaculture proximity in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Aquaculture Environment Interactions 11: 357-374.
  12. B. Burd, C. Lowe, C. Morales-Caselles, M. Noel, P.S. Ross, T. Macdonald. 2019. Uptake and trophic changes in polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the benthic marine food chain in southwestern British Columbia, Canada. FACETS 4: 20-51.
  13. E.A. Gies, J.L. LeNoble, M. Noël, A. Etemadifar, F. Bishay, E.R. Hall, P.S. Ross. 2018.Retention of microplastics in a major secondary wastewater treatment plant in Vancouver, Canada. Marine Pollution Bulletin 133:553-561.
  14. P. O’Hara, S. Avery-Gomm, J. Wood, V. Bowes, L. Wilson, K. Morgan, S. Boyd, M. Hipfner, J.P. Desforges, D. Bertram, C. Hannah, P.S. Ross. 2018. Seasonal variability in vulnerability for Cassin’s auklets (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) exposed to microplastic pollution in the Canadian Pacific region. Science of the Total Environment 649: 50-60.
  15. J.M. Hipfner, M. Galbraith, S. Tucker, K.R. Studholme, A.D. Domalik, S.F. Pearson, T.P. Good, P.S. Ross, P. Hodum. 2018. Two forage fishes as potential conduits for the vertical transfer of microfibres in Northeastern Pacific Ocean food webs. Environmental Pollution 239: 215-222.
  16. T. Domingo, K. Starosta, A. Chester, J. Williams, P.S. Ross. 2017. Studying levels of Fukushima-derived radioactivity in sockeye salmon collected on the west coast of Vancouver Island. Radiation Physics and Chemistry 140: 186-189.
  17. H. Frouin, P. Jackman, N.D. Dangerfield, P.S. Ross. 2017. Effects of Feeding Strategy, Sediment Characteristics, and Chemical Properties on Polychlorinated Biphenyl and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Bioaccumulation from Marine Sediments in Two Invertebrates. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 73: 256-269.
  18. Jarvela-Rosenberger, A.L., MacDuffee, M., Rosenberger A.G.J., Ross, P. 2017. Oil spills and marine mammals in British Columbia, Canada: development and application of a risk-based conceptual framework. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 73: 131-153.
  19. Morales-Caselles, C., Yunker, M.B., and Ross, P.S. 2017. Identification of spilled oil from the MV Marathassa (Vancouver, Canada 2015) using alkyl PAH isomer ratios. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 73: 118-130.
  20. Crichton, E.M., M. Noël, E.A. Gies, P.S. Ross. 2017. A novel, density-independent and FTIR-compatible approach for the rapid extraction of microplastics from aquatic sediments. Analytical Methods 9 : 1419-1428.
  21. L. Loseto, K. Pleskatch, C. Hoover, G. Tomy, J.P. Desforges, T. Halldorsson, P.S. Ross. 2018. Cortisol levels in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas): Setting a benchmark for Marine Protected Area monitoring. Arctic Science 4: 358-370.
  22. M. Noel, N. Dangerfield, S. Jeffries, D. Lambourn, M. Lance, C. Helbing, M. Lebeuf and P.S. Ross. 2017 (in press). PCB-related alterations of the expression of essential genes in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) from coastal sites in Canada and the USA. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 73: 310-321.
  23. Morales-Caselles, C., J.-P.W. Desforges, N. Dangerfield, P.S. Ross. 2017. A risk-based characterization of sediment contamination by legacy and emergent contaminants of concern in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 73: 270-284.
  24. J.J.Alava, W.L. Cheung, P.S. Ross, U.R.Sumaila. 2017. Climate change-contaminant interactions in marine food webs: Towards a conceptual framework. Global Change Biology 23: 3984–4001.
  25. Yunker, M., Macdonald, R.W., Ross, P.S., Johannessen, S.C., Dangerfield, N.D. 2015. Alkane and PAH provenance and potential bioavailability in coastal marine sediments subject to a gradient of anthropogenic sources in British Columbia, Canada. Organic Geochemistry 89-90: 80-116.
  26. Brown, T.M.,P.S. Ross, K.J. Reimer, N.Veldhoen, N.J. Dangerfield, A.T. Fisk, C.C. Helbing. PCB related effects thresholds as derived through gene transcript profiles in locally-contaminated ringed seals (Pusa hispida). Environmental Science and Technology 48: 12952–12961.
  27. Du Gas, L.M., P.S. Ross, J. Walker, V.L. Marlatt, C.J. Kennedy. 2017. Effects of atrazine and chlorothalonil on the reproductive success, development and growth of early life stages of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (in press). DOI: 10.1002/etc.3753
  28. Brown, T.M., Ross, P.S. Reimer, K.J. 2016. Transplacental transfer of PCBs, PBDEs and organochlorine pesticides in ringed seals (Pusa hispida). Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 70: 20-27.
  29. Noel, M., Jeffries, S., Lambourn, D., Telmer, K., Macdonald, R., Ross, P.S. 2016. Mercury accumulation in harbour seals from the Northeastern Pacific Ocean: The role of transplacental transfer, lactation, age and location. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 70: 56-66.
  30. Alava, J.J., Ross, P.S., Gobas, F.A.P.C. 2016. Food web bioaccumulation model for resident killer whales from the northeastern Pacific Ocean as a tool for the derivation of PBDE-Sediment Quality Guidelines. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 70: 155-168.
  31. Bergman, A. et al. 2015. Manufacturing doubt about endocrine disrupter science – A rebuttal of industry-sponsored critical comments on the UNEP / WHO report “State of the Science of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds 2012”. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology.
  32. Desforges, J.-P., M. Galbraith, Ross, P.S. 2015. Ingestion of microplastics by zooplankton in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 69: 320-330. 
  33. Scheuhammer, A., Braune, B., Chan, H.M., Frouin, H., Krey, A., Letcher, R., Loseto, L., Noel, M., Ostertag, S., Ross, P.S., Wayland, M. 2015. Recent progress on our understanding of the biological effects of mercury in fish and wildlife in the Canadian Arctic. Science of the Total Environment 509-510: 91-103. 
  34. Ross, P.S., Morales-Caselles, C. 2015. Microplastics: Out of sight but not out of mind: Microplastics as a global pollutant. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 11: 721-722.
  35. Noël, M., Loseto, L.L., Helbing, C.C., Veldhoen, N., Dangerfield, N.J., Ross, P.S., 2014. PCBs are associated with altered gene transcript profiles in arctic beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). Environmental Science and Technology 48: 2942-2951.
  36. Burd, B.J., Macdonald, T.A., Macdonald, R.W., Ross, P.S.. 2014. Distribution and uptake of key PCB and PBDE congeners in benthic infauna relative to sediment organic enrichment. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology: 67: 310-334.
  37. Desforges, J.-P.W., Galbraith, M., Dangerfield, N., Ross, P.S. 2014. Widespread distribution of microplastics in subsurface seawaters in the NE Pacific Ocean. Marine Pollution Bulletin 79: 94-99.
  38. Desforges, J.P., Dangerfield, N.D., Shaw, P.D., Ross, P.S. 2014. Heightened biological uptake of PBDEs and PCBs near-source revealed by sediment and plankton profiles along a coastal gradient in British Columbia. Environmental Science and Technology 48: 6981-6988.
  39. Grant,P., Woudneh, M.B., Ross, P.S. 2014. Author’s reply. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 33: 1442-1445.
  40. Bergman et al. 2013. Science and policy on endocrine disruptors must not be mixed: a reply to a ‘common sense’ intervention by toxicology journal editors. Environmental Health 12: 69.
  41. Grant, P.B.C., Woudneh, M.B., Ross, P.S. 2013. Pesticides in blood from spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) downstream of banana plantations in Costa Rica. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 32: 2576-2583.
  42. Desforges, J.P.W., Ross, P.S., Dangerfield, N.J., Palace, V., Loseto, L.L. 2013. Vitamin A and E profiles as biomarkers of PCB exposure in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the western Canadian Arctic. Aquatic Toxicology 142-143: 317-328.
  43. Frouin, H., Haulena, M., Akhurst, L.M.F., Raverty, S.A., Ross, P.S. 2013. Immune status and function in harbor seal pups during rehabilitation. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 155: 98-109. 
  44. Ross,P.S., Kennedy,C., Shelley L.K., Tierney,K.B., Patterson,D.A., Fairchild,W.L., Macdonald,R.W. 2013. The trouble with salmon: Relating pollutant exposure to toxic effect in species with transformational life histories and lengthy migrations. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sciences 70: 1252-1264.
  45. Slooten,E., Wang,J.Y., Dungan,S.Z., Forney,K.A., Hung, S.K., Jefferson,T.A., Riehl, K.N., Rojas-Bracho, L., Ross, P.S., Wee, A., Winkler, R., Yang, S.C. and Chen, C.A. 2013. Impacts of fisheries on the Critically Endangered humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) population in the eastern Taiwan Strait. Endangered Species Research 22: 99-114.
  46. Ross,P.S., Noël,M., Lambourn,D.M., Dangerfield,N., Calambokidis,J.C., and Jeffries,S.J. 2013. Declining concentrations of PCBs, PBDEs, PCDEs and PCNs in harbor seals from the Salish Sea. Progress in Oceanography 115: 160-170.
  47. Desforges,J.P.W., Ross,P.S., and Loseto,L.L. 2013. Metabolic transformation shapes polychlorinated biphenyl and polybrominated diphenyl ether patterns in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). Environ.Toxicol.Chem. 32: 1132-1142.
  48. Frouin H., Dangerfield N., Macdonald R.W., Galbraith M., Crewe N., Shaw P., Mackas D., Ross P.S. 2013. Partitioning and bioaccumulation of PCBs and PBDEs in marine plankton from Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada. Progress in Oceanography 115: 65-75.
  49. Goulding,A.T., Shelley,L.K., Ross,P.S., and Kennedy,C.J. 2013. Reduction in swimming performance in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following sublethal exposure to pyrethroid pesticides. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C 157: 280-286.
  50. Shelley,L.K., Osachoff,H.L., van Aggelen,G.C., Ross,P.S., and Kennedy,C.J. 2013. Alteration of immune function endpoints and differential expression ofestrogen receptor isoforms in leukocytes from 17ß-estradiol exposed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Gen.Comp.Endocrinol. 180: 24-32.
  51. Alava,J.J., Ross,P.S., Lachmuth,C.L., Ford,J.K.B., Hickie,B.E., and Gobas,F.A.P.C. 2012. Habitat-based PCB environmental quality criteria for the protection of endangered killer whales (Orcinus orca). Environmental Science & Technology, 46: 12655-12663.
  52. Christensen,J.R., Yunker,M.B., MacDuffee,M., and Ross,P.S. 2013. Plant consumption by grizzly bears reduces biomagnification of salmon-deroved PCBs, PBDEs and organochlorine pesticides. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 32: 995-1005.
  53. Cullon,D.L., Dangerfield,N., Whiticar,M.J., and Ross,P.S. 2012. Biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls in a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) food web in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia (Canada). Environ.Toxicol.Chem., 31: 2445-2455.
  54. Shelley L.K., Ross P.S., Kennedy C.J. 2012. Immunotoxic and cytotoxic effects of atrazine, permethrin and piperonyl butoxide to rainbow trout following in vitro exposure. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, in press.
  55. Shelley,L.K., Ross,P.S., Miller,K.M., Kaukinen,K.H., and Kennedy,C.J. 2012. Toxicity of atrazine and nonylphenol in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Effects on general health, disease susceptibility and gene expression. Aquat.Toxicol. 124-125: 217-226.
  56. Alava,J.J., Lambourn,D.M., Olesiuk,P.F., Lance,M., Jeffries,S.J., Gobas,F.A.P.C., and Ross,P.S. 2012. PBDEs and PCBs in migrating steller sea lions (Eumatopias jubatus) in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada. Chemosphere 88: 855-864.
  57. Desforges,J.P.W., Ross,P.S., and Loseto,L.L. 2012. Transplacental transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Arctic beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 31: 296-300.
  58. Dinn,P.M., Johannessen,S.C., Ross,P.S., Macdonald,R.W., Whiticar,M.J., Lowe,C.J., and van Roodselaar,A. 2012. PBDE and PCB accumulation in benthos near marine wastewater outfalls: the role of sediment organic carbon. Environ.Pollut. 171: 241-248.
  59. Frouin,H., Loseto,L.L., Stern,G.A., Haulena,M., and Ross,P.S. 2012. Mercury toxicity in beluga whale lymphocytes: limited effects of selenium protection. Aquat.Toxicol. 109: 185-193.
  60. Mongillo,T.M., Holmes,E.E., Noren,D.P., VanBlaricom,G.R., Punt,A.E., O’Neill,S.M., Ylitalo,G.M., Hanson,M.B., and Ross,P.S. 2012. Estimated polybrominated diphenylether (PBDE) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) accumulation in southern resident killer whales. Mar.Ecol.Prog.Ser. 453: 263-277.
  61. Shelley,L.K., Ross,P.S., and Kennedy,C.J. 2012. The effects of an in vitro exposure to 17b-estradiol and nonylphenol on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) peripheral blood leukocytes. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C 155: 440-446.
  62. Harris,K.A., Nichol,L.M., and Ross,P.S. 2011. Hydrocarbon concentrations and patterns in free-ranging sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from British Columbia, Canada. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 30: 2184-2193.
  63. Harris,K.A., Yunker,M.B., Dangerfield,N., and Ross,P.S. 2011. Sediment-associated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal British Columbia, Canada: concentrations, composition, and associated risks to protected sea otters. Environ.Pollut. 159: 2665-2674.
  64. Ross,P.S., Barlow,J., Jefferson,T.A., Hickie,B.E., Lee,T., MacFarquhar,C., Parsons,E.C.M., Riehl,K., Rose,N., Simpkins,M., Slooten,E., Tsai,J., Wang,J.Y., Wright,A., and Yang,S.-C. 2011. Ten guiding principles for the delineation of priority habitat for coastal cetaceans. Marine Policy 35: 483-488.
  65. Alava,J.J., Ross,P.S., Ikonomou,M.G., Cruz,M., Jimenez-Uzcategui,G., Dubetz,C., Salazar,S., Costa,A.N., Villegas-Amtmann,S., Howorth,P., and Gobas,F.A.P.C. 2011. DDT in endangered Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki). Mar. Pollut. Bull. DOI: 10:1016/j.marpolbul.2011.01.032.
  66. Alava,J.J., Salazar,S., Cruz,M., Jimenez-Uzcategui,G., Villegas-Amtmann,S., Paez-Rosas,D., Costa,A.N., Ross,P.S., Ikonomou,M.G., and Gobas,F. 2011. DDT strikes back: Galapagos sea lions face increasing health risks. Ambio DOI: 10.1007/s13280-011-0136-6.
  67. Buckman,A.H., Veldhoen,N., Ellis,G., Ford,J.K.B., Helbing,C., and Ross,P.S. 2011. PCB-associated changes in mRNA expression in killer whales (Orcinus orca) from the NE Pacific Ocean. Environ. Sci. Technol. 45: 10194-10202.
  68. Grant,P.B.C., Johannessen,S.C., Macdonald,R.W., Yunker,M.B., Sanborn,M., Dangerfield,N., Wright,C., and Ross,P.S. 2011. Environmental fractionation of PCBs and PBDEs during particle transport as recorded by sediments in coastal waters. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 30: 1522-1532.
  69. Kennedy C.J., Ross P.S. 2011. Stress syndromes: Heightened bioenergetic costs associated with contaminant exposure at warm temperatures in teleost fish. SETAC Globe Learned Discourses.  2011: 1-4.
  70. Yunker,M.B., Lachmuth,C.L., Cretney,W.J., Fowler,B.R., Dangerfield,N., White,L., and Ross,P.S. 2011. Biota-sediment partitioning of aluminum smelter related PAHs and pulp mill related diterpenes by intertidal clams at Kitimat, British Columbia. Mar. Environ. Res. 72: 105-126.
  71. Mos,L., Cameron,M., Jeffries,S.J., Koop,B.F., and Ross,P.S. 2010. Risk-based analysis of PCB toxicity in harbor seals. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 6: 631-640.
  72. Ross,P.S., Dungan,S.Z., Hung,S.K., Jefferson,T.A., MacFarquhar,C., Perrin,W.F., Riehl,K., Slooten,E., Wang,J.Y., White,B.N., Wursig,B., Yang,S.-C., and Reeves,R.R. 2010. Averting the Baiji syndrome: Characterising habitat for critically endangered dolphins in eastern Taiwan Strait. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 20: 685-694.
  73. Tierney,K.B., Baldwin,D.H., Hara,T.J., Ross,P.S., Scholz,N.L., and Kennedy,C.J. 2010. Review: Olfactory toxicity in fishes. Aquat.Toxicol. 96: 2-26.
  74. Alava,J.J., Ikonomou,M.G., Ross,P.S., Costa,D., Salazar,S., Aurioles-Gamboa,D., and Gobas,F.A.P.C. 2009. Polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki). Environ.Toxicol.Chem. 28: 2271-2282. 
  75. Bennett,E.R., Ross,P.S., Huff,D., Alaee,M., and Letcher,R.J. 2009. Chlorinated and brominated organic contaminants and metabolites in the plasma and diet of a captive killer whale (Orcinus orca). Mar.Pollut.Bull. 58: 1078-1095. 
  76. Christensen,J.R., Letcher,J.R., and Ross,P.S. 2010. Persistent or not persistent? Polychlorinated biphenyls are readily depurated by grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Environ.Toxicol.Chem. 28: 2206-2215.
  77. Cullon,D.L., Yunker,M.B., Alleyne,C., Dangerfield,N.J., O’Neill,S., Whiticar,M.J., and Ross,P.S. 2009. Persistent organic pollutants in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha): implications for resident killer whales of British Columbia and adjacent waters. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 28: 148-161.
  78. Noël,M., Barrett-Lennard,L.G., Guinet,C., Dangerfield,N., and Ross,P.S. 2009. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in killer whales (Orcinus orca) from the Crozet Archipelago, southern Indian Ocean. Mar.Environ.Res. 68: 196-202.
  79. Noël,M., Dangerfield,N., Hourston,R.A.S., Belzer,W., Shaw,P., Yunker,M.B., and Ross,P.S. 2009. Do trans-Pacific air masses deliver PBDEs to coastal British Columbia, Canada? Environ.Pollut. 157: 3404-3412.
  80. Ross, P. S.; Couillard, C. M.; Ikonomou, M. G.; Johannessen, S. C.; Lebeuf, M.; Macdonald, R. W.; Tomy, G. T. 2009. Large and growing environmental reservoirs of Deca-BDE present an emerging health risk for fish and marine mammals. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 58: 7-10. 
  81. Shelley,L.K., Balfry,S.K., Ross,P.S., and Kennedy,C.J. 2009. Immunotoxicological effects of a sub-chronic exposure to selected current-use pesticides in rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss). Aquat.Toxicol. 92: 95-103. 
  82. Harris K.A., Dangerfield N., Woudneh M., Brown T.G., Verrin S., Ross P.S. 2008. Partitioning of current-use and legacy pesticides in salmon habitat in British Columbia, Canada. Environ Toxicol Chem 27:2253-2262.
  83. Tierney,K.B., Sampson,J.L., Ross,P.S., Sekela,M.A. and Kennedy,C.J. (2008) Salmon olfaction is impaired by an environmentally realistic pesticide mixture. Environmental Science & Technology: 42: 4996-5001.
  84. Hickie,B.E., Ross,P.S., Macdonald,R.W., and Ford,J.K.B. 2007. Killer whales (Orcinus orca) face protracted health risks associated with lifetime exposure to PCBs. Environmental Science and Technology 41: 6613-6619.
  85. Krahn,M.M., Hanson,M.B., Baird,R.W., Boyer,R.H., Burrows,D.G., Emmons,C.K., Ford,J.K.B., Jones,L.L., Noren,D.P., Ross,P.S., Schorr,G.S., and Collier,T.K. 2007. Persistent organic pollutants and stable isotopes in biopsy samples (2004/2006) from Southern Resident killer whales. Mar.Pollut.Bull. 54: 1903-1911.
  86. Assunção,M.G.L., Miller,K.A., Dangerfield,N., Bandiera,S.M., and Ross,P.S. 2007. Cytochrome P450 1A expression and organochlorine contaminants in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina): evaluating a biopsy approach. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 145: 256-264.
  87. Christensen,J.R., MacDuffee,M., Yunker,M.B., and Ross,P.S. 2007. Hibernation-associated changes in persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels and patterns in British Columbia grizzly bears. Environ.Sci.Technol. 41: 1834-1840.
  88. Mos,L., Tabuchi,M., Dangerfield,N., Jeffries,S.J., Koop,B.F., and Ross,P.S. 2007. Contaminant-associated disruption of vitamin A and its receptor (RARa) in free-ranging harbour seals (Phoca vitulina). Aquat.Toxicol. 81: 319-328.
  89. Tierney,K.B., Ross,P.S., and Kennedy,C.J. 2007. Linuron and carbaryl differentially impair baseline amino acid and bile salt olfactory responses in three salmonids. Toxicology 231: 175-187.
  90. Tierney,K.B., Singh,C.R., Ross,P.S., and Kennedy,C.J. 2007. Relating olfactory neurotoxicity to altered olfactory-mediated behaviours in rainbow trout exposed to three currently-used pesticides. Aquat.Toxicol. 81: 55-64.
  91. Buckles,E.L., Gulland,F.M., Aldridge,B.M., Gelatt,T.S., Ross,P.S., Haulena,M., and Lowenstine,L.J. 2006. Fetus-In-Fetu in a Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina richardsi): Histopathological, genetic and contaminant analysis. Vet.Pathol. 43: 541-544.
  92. Mos,L., Morsey,B., Jeffries,S.J., Yunker,M., Raverty,S., De Guise,S., and Ross,P.S. 2006. Both chemical and biological pollution contribute to immunological profiles of free-ranging harbor seals. Environ.Toxicol.Chem. 25: 3110-3117.
  93. Tabuchi,M., Veldhoen,N., Dangerfield,N., Jeffries,S.J., Helbing,C.C., and Ross,P.S. 2006. PCB-related alteration of thyroid hormones and thyroid hormone receptor gene expression in free-ranging harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). Environ.Health Perspect. 114: 1024-1031.
  94. Tierney,K.B., Ross,P.S., Jarrard,H.E., Delaney,K.R., and Kennedy,C.J. 2006. Changes in juvenile coho salmon electro-olfactogram during and after short-term exposure to current-use pesticides. Environ.Toxicol.Chem. 25: 2809-2817.
  95. Tierney,K.B., Taylor,A.L., Ross,P.S., and Kennedy,C.J. 2006. The alarm reaction of coho salmon parr is impaired by the carbamate fungicide IPBC. Aquat.Toxicol. 79: 149-157.
  96. Ross,P.S. 2006. Fireproof killer whales: Flame retardant chemicals and the conservation imperative in the charismatic icon of British Columbia. Can.J.Fish.Aquat.Sci. 63: 224-234.
  97. Christensen,J.R., MacDuffee,M., Macdonald,R.W., Whiticar,M., and Ross,P.S. 2005. Persistent organic pollutants in British Columbia grizzly bears: Consequence of divergent diets. Environ.Sci.Technol. 39: 6952-6960.
  98. Cullon,D.L., Jeffries,S.J., and Ross,P.S. 2005. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in the diet of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) inhabiting Puget Sound, Washington (USA) and the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia (Canada): A food basket approach. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 24: 2562-2572.
  99. Debier,C., Le Boeuf,B.J., Ikonomou,M.G., De Tillesse,T., Larondelle,Y., and Ross,P.S. 2005. Polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins and furans in weaned, free-ranging northern elephant seal pups from Central California, U.S.A. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 24: 629-633.
  100. Levin,M.J., De Guise,S., and Ross,P.S. 2005. Lymphocyte proliferation is associated with PCBs in free-ranging harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) pups from British Columbia, Canada. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 24: 1247-1252.
  101. Miller,K.A., Assunção,M.G.L., Dangerfield,N., Bandiera,S.M., and Ross,P.S. 2005. Assessment of cytochrome P450 1A in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) using a minimally-invasive biopsy approach. Mar. Environ. Res. 60: 153-169.
  102. Lichota,G.B., McAdie,M., and Ross,P.S. 2004. Endangered Vancouver Island marmots (Marmota vancouverensis): Sentinels of atmospherically delivered contaminants to British Columbia, Canada. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 23: 402-407.
  103. Mos,L., Jack,J., Cullon,D., Montour,L., Alleyne,C., and Ross,P.S. 2004. The importance of marine foods to a near-urban First Nation community in coastal British Columbia, Canada: Towards a risk-benefit assessment. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, Part A 67: 1-18.
  104. Rayne,S., Ikonomou,M.G., Ellis,G.M., Barrett-Lennard,L.G., and Ross,P.S. 2004. PBDEs, PBBs, and PCNs in three communities of free-ranging killer whales (Orcinus orca) from the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Environ. Sci. Technol. 38: 4293-4299.
  105. Reddy,C.M., Xu,L., O`Neil,G.W., Nelson,R.K., Eglinton,T.I., Faulkner,D.J., Fenical,W.H., Norstrom,R., Ross,P.S., and Tittlemier,S.A. 2004. Radiocarbon evidence for a naturally-produced, bioaccumulating halogenated organic compound. Environ. Sci. Technol. 38: 1992-1997.
  106. Ross,P.S., Jeffries,S.J., Yunker,M.B., Addison,R.F., Ikonomou,M.G., and Calambokidis,J.C. 2004. Harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in British Columbia, Canada, and Washington State, USA, reveal a combination of local and global polychlorinated biphenyl, dioxin, and furan signals. Environ.Toxicol.Chem. 23: 157-165.
  107. Ross,P.S. 2004. Body condition, rather than contaminants, likely explains health effects observed in first-born northern fur seal pups. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 48: 806-807.
  108. Mos,L., Ross,P.S., McIntosh,D., and Raverty,S. 2003. Canine distemper virus in river otters in British Columbia as an emergent risk for coastal pinnipeds. Vet. Rec. 152: 237-239.
  109. Ross,P.S. and Birnbaum,L.S. 2003. Integrated human and ecological risk assessment: A case study of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in humans and wildlife. HERA 9(1): 303-324.
  110. Cottrell,P.E., Jeffries,S.J., Beck,B., and Ross,P.S. 2002. Growth and development in free-ranging harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) pups from southern British Columbia. Mar. Mamm. Sci. 18(3): 721-733.
  111. Mos,L. and Ross,P.S. 2002. Vitamin A physiology in the precocious harbour seal (Phoca vitulina): A tissue-based biomarker approach. Can. J. Zool. 80(9): 1511-1519.
  112. Ross,P.S. 2002. The role of immunotoxic environmental contaminants in facilitating the emergence of infectious diseases in marine mammals. HERA 8(2): 277-292.
  113. Tittlemier,S., Borrell,A., Duffe,J., Duignan,P.J., Fair,P., Hall,A., Hoekstra,P., Kovacs,K., Krahn,M.M., Lebeuf,M., Lydersen,C., Muir,D., O’Hara,T., Olsson,M., Pranschke,J., Ross,P., Siebert,U., Stern,G., Tanabe,S., and Norstrom,R. 2002. Global distribution of halogenated dimethyl bipyrroles in marine mammal blubber. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 43(2): 244-255.
  114. Sather,P., Ikonomou,M.G., Addison,R.F., He,T., Ross,P.S., and Fowler,B. 2001. Similarity of an Aroclor-based and a full congener-based method in determining total PCBs and a modelling approach to estimate Aroclor speciation from congener-specific PCB data. Environ. Sci. Technol. 35: 4874-4880.
  115. Simms,W. and Ross,P.S. 2001. Vitamin A physiology and its application as a biomarker of contaminant-related toxicity in marine mammals: a review. Toxicol. Ind. Health 16: 291-302.
  116. Van Bressem,M.F., Van Waerebeek,K., Jepson,P.D., Raga,J.A., Duignan,P.J., Nielsen,O., Di Beneditto,A.P., Siciliano,S., Ramos,R., Kant,W., Peddemors,V., Kinoshita,R., Ross,P.S., Lopez-Fernandez,A., Evans,K., Crespo,E., and Barrett,T. 2001. An insight into the epidemiology of dolphin morbillivirus worldwide. Vet. Microbiol. 81: 287-304.
  117. Simms,W. and Ross,P.S. 2000. Developmental changes in circulatory vitamin A (retinol) and its transport proteins in free-ranging harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) pups. Can. J. Zool. 78: 1862-1868.
  118. Simms W., Jeffries S.J., Ikonomou M.G., Ross P.S. 2000. Contaminant-related disruption of vitamin A dynamics in free-ranging harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) pups from British Columbia, Canada and Washington State, USA. Environ Toxicol Chem 19:2844-2849.
  119. Ross,P.S. 2000. Marine mammals as sentinels in ecological risk assessment. HERA 6: 29-46.
  120. Ross,P.S., Ellis,G.M., Ikonomou,M.G., Barrett-Lennard,L.G., and Addison,R.F. 2000. High PCB concentrations in free-ranging Pacific killer whales, Orcinus orca: effects of age, sex and dietary preference. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 40: 504-515.
  121. Ross,P.S., Vos,J.G., Birnbaum,L.S., and Osterhaus,A.D.M.E. 2000. PCBs are a health risk for humans and wildlife. Science 289: 1878-1879.
  122. Van Loveren,H., Ross,P.S., Osterhaus,A.D.M.E., and Vos,J.G. 2000. Contaminant-induced immunosuppression and mass mortalities among harbour seals. Toxicol. Lett. 112-113: 319-324.
  123. De Guise,S., Ross,P.S., Osterhaus,A.D.M.E., Martineau,D., Beland,P., and Fournier,M. 1997. Immune functions in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas): evaluation of natural killer cell activity. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 58: 345-354.
  124. Luebke,R.W., Hodson,P.V., Faisal,M., Ross,P.S., Grasman,K.A., and Zelikoff,J.T. 1997. Aquatic pollution-induced immunotoxicity in wildlife species. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 37: 1-15.
  125. Ross,P.S., De Swart,R.L., Van der Vliet,H., Willemsen,L., De Klerk,A., Van Amerongen,G., Groen,J., Brouwer,A., Schipholt,I., Morse,D.C., Van Loveren,H., Osterhaus,A.D.M.E., and Vos,J.G. 1997. Impaired cellular immune response in rats exposed perinatally to Baltic Sea herring oil or 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Arch. Toxicol. 17: 563-574.
  126. De Swart,R.L., Ross,P.S., Vos,J.G., and Osterhaus,A.D.M.E. 1996. Impaired immunity in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) exposed to bioaccumulated environmental contaminants: review of a long-term study. Environ. Health Perspect. 104 (suppl. 4): 823-828.
  127. De Swart,R.L., Ross,P.S., Vos,J.G., and Osterhaus,A.D.M.E. 1996. Impaired immunity in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) fed environmentally contaminated herring. Vet. Quart. 18: s127-s128.
  128. Ross,P.S., Van Loveren,H., De Swart,R.L., Van der Vliet,H., De Klerk,A., Timmerman,H.H., Van Binnendijk,R.S., Brouwer,A., Vos,J.G., and Osterhaus,A.D.M.E. 1996. Host resistance to rat cytomegalovirus (RCMV) and immune function in adult PVG rats fed herring from the contaminated Baltic Sea. Arch. Toxicol. 70: 661-671.
  129. Ross,P.S., De Swart,R.L., Addison,R.F., Van Loveren,H., Vos,J.G., and Osterhaus,A.D.M.E. 1996. Contaminant-induced immunotoxicity in harbour seals: wildlife at risk? Toxicology 112: 157-169.
  130. Ross,P.S., De Swart,R.L., Timmerman,H.H., Reijnders,P.J.H., Vos,J.G., Van Loveren,H., and Osterhaus,A.D.M.E. 1996. Suppression of natural killer cell activity in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) fed Baltic Sea herring. Aquat. Toxicol. 34: 71-84.
  131. Ross,P.S., De Swart,R.L., Van Loveren,H., Osterhaus,A.D.M.E., and Vos,J.G. 1996. The immunotoxicity of environmental contaminants to marine wildlife: A review. Ann. Rev. Fish Dis. 6: 151-165.
  132. De Swart,R.L., Harder,T.C., Ross,P.S., Vos,H.W., and Osterhaus,A.D.M.E. 1995. Morbilliviruses and morbillivirus diseases of marine mammals. Infect. Agent. Dis. 4: 125-130.
  133. De Swart,R.L., Ross,P.S., Timmerman,H.H., Hijman,W.C., De Ruiter,E., Liem,A.K.D., Brouwer,A., Van Loveren,H., Reijnders,P.J.H., Vos,J.G., and Osterhaus,A.D.M.E. 1995. Short-term fasting does not aggravate immunosuppression in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) with high body burdens of organochlorines. Chemosphere 31: 4289-4306.
  134. De Swart,R.L., Ross,P.S., Timmerman,H.H., Vos,H.W., Reijnders,P.J.H., Vos,J.G., and Osterhaus,A.D.M.E. 1995. Impaired cellular immune response in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) feeding on environmentally contaminated herring. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 101: 480-486.
  135. De Swart,R.L., Ross,P.S., Vedder,L.J., Boink,F.B.T.J., Reijnders,P.J.H., Mulder,P.G.H., and Osterhaus,A.D.M.E. 1995. Haematology and clinical chemistry values for harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) fed environmentally contaminanted herring remain within normal ranges. Can. J. Zool. 73: 2035-2043.
  136. Osterhaus,A.D.M.E., De Swart,R.L., Vos,H.W., Ross,P.S., Kenter,M.J.H., and Barrett,T. 1995. Morbillivirus infections of aquatic mammals: newly identified members of the genus. Vet. Microbiol. 44: 219-227.
  137. Ross,P.S., De Swart,R.L., Reijnders,P.J.H., Van Loveren,H., Vos,J.G., and Osterhaus,A.D.M.E. 1995. Contaminant-related suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity and antibody responses in harbor seals fed herring from the Baltic Sea. Environ. Health Perspect. 103: 162-167.
  138. De Swart,R.L., Ross,P.S., Vedder,L.J., Timmerman,H.H., Heisterkamp,S.H., Van Loveren,H., Vos,J.G., Reijnders,P.J.H., and Osterhaus,A.D.M.E. 1994. Impairment of immune function in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) feeding on fish from polluted waters. Ambio 23: 155-159.
  139. Ross,P.S., De Swart,R.L., Visser,I.K.G., Murk,W., Bowen,W.D., and Osterhaus,A.D.M.E. 1994. Relative immunocompetence of the newborn harbour seal, Phoca vitulina. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 42: 331-348.
  140. Ross,P.S., Pohajdak,B., Bowen,W.D., and Addison,R.F. 1993. Immune function in free-ranging harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) mothers and their pups during lactation. J. Wildlife. Dis. 29: 21-29.
  141. Ross,P.S., Visser,I.K.G., Broeders,H.W.J., Van de Bildt,M.W.G., Bowen,W.D., and Osterhaus,A.D.M.E. 1992. Antibodies to phocine distemper virus in Canadian seals. Vet. Rec. 130: 514-516.
  142. Tillitt,D.E., Ankley,G.T., Giesy,J.P., Ludwig,J.P., Kuritamatsuba,H., Weseloh,D.V., Ross,P.S., Bishop,C.A., Sileo,L., Stromberg,K.L., Larson,J., and Kubiak,T.J. 1992. Polychlorinated biphenyl residues and egg mortality in double- crested cormorants from the Great Lakes. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 11: 1281-1288.


  1. Dean, J.H., Descotes, J., Kuper, J., Luster, M., Ross, P.S., Schuurman, H.J., Selgrade, M.J., De Swart, R.L., Van Loveren, H., Vos, J.G., Wester, P.W., and Zapata, A.G. (Contributing authors). 1996. Principles and Methods for Assessing Direct Immunotoxicity Associated with Exposure to Chemicals. International Programme on Chemical Safety. E. Smith, ed. World Health Organization, Geneva. ISBN 92 4 157180 2. 390pp.
  2. Ross, P.S., S. Riordon, and S. Macartney (eds). 1989. Resolving Global Problems into the 21st Century: How Can Science Help? Selected material from the fourth national conference of Canadian Student Pugwash. CSP Publications, Ottawa, Canada. 186 pp.
  3. Ross, P.S. (ed). 1986. Science and Society: A Directory to Sources of Information: Defence and Arms Control. CSP Publications, Ottawa, Canada. 286 pp.
  4. Ross, P.S., and Barry B. McArthur (eds). 1985. Global Issues and the Future. Proceedings of symposium held at Trent University. 234 pp.

Book chapters

  1. J.J. Alava and P. S. Ross. Pollutants in tropical marine mammals of the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador: An Ecotoxicological Quest to the Last Eden. Chapter 8 in Marine Mammal Ecotoxicology, Impacts of Multiple Stressors on Population Health (Eds. Maria Cristina Fossi & Cristina Panti). Elsevier.
  2. Ross,P.S. 2011. Aquatic Toxicology and Ecology: new concerns and new techniques highlighted in Portland. SETAC Globe 12.
  3. Loseto,L.L. and Ross,P.S. 2010. Organic contaminants in marine mammals: Concepts in exposure, toxicity and management. In Encyclopedia of ecotoxicology. Edited by J.P.Meador and J.B.Barnett. Taylor and Francis. Pp. 343-369.
  4. Ross,P.S. and Grant,P. 2007. Persistent Organic Pollutants. In Encyclopedia of Risk Assessment. Edited by E.Melnick and B.Everitt. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester.
  5. Ross,P.S. and Grant,P. Persistent Organic Pollutants. In: Encyclopedia of Risk Assessment, edited by Melnick,E. and Everitt,B. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2007.
  6. Ross,P.S. and De Guise,S. 2007. Marine mammal immunotoxicology. In Immunotoxicology and Immunopharmacology. Edited by R.House and R.Luebke. CRC Press, Boca Raton. pp 403-422.
  7. Ross,P.S. 2004. Characterizing the risk of contaminant-related health impacts in cetaceans. In Proceedings: Conservation and research needs of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins, Sousa chinensis, in the waters of Taiwan. Edited by J.Y.Wang, S.-C.Yang, and R.R.Reeves. National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium, Checheng. pp. 1-7.
  8. Ross,P.S. 2005. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and outbreaks of disease in marine mammals. In Mankind and the Oceans. Edited by N.Miyazaki, Z.Adeel, and K.Ohwada. United Nations University Press, Tokyo. pp. 1-220.
  9. Ross,P.S. 2006. Killer whales as sentinels of global pollution. In Principles of Conservation Biology. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA USA. 779 pp.
  10. Ross,P.S., Beckmen,K.B., and Pillet,S. 2003. Immunotoxicology of free-ranging pinnipeds:Approaches to study design. In Toxicology of Marine Mammals. Edited by J.G.Vos, G.D.Bossart, and M.Fournier. Taylor & Francis, Washington, DC pp. 571-591.
  11. Ross,P.S., Vos,J.G., and Osterhaus,A.D.M.E. 2003. The immune system, environmental contaminants and virus-associated mass mortalities among pinnipeds. In Toxicology of Marine Mammals. Edited by J.G.Vos, G.D.Bossart, and M.Fournier. Taylor & Francis, Washington, DC pp. 543-557.
  12. Vos,J.G., Van Loveren,H., Ross,P.S., De Swart,R.L., and Osterhaus,A.D.M.E. 2003. The effects of chemical contaminants on immune function in harbour seals: Results of a semi-field study. In Toxicology of Marine Mammals. Edited by J.G.Vos, G.D.Bossart, M.Fournier, and T.J.O’Shea. Taylor & Francis, Washington, DC pp. 558-570.
  13. Ross,P.S. and Troisi,G.M. 2001. Pinnipeds. In Ecotoxicology of wild mammals. Edited by R.F.Shore and B.A.Rattner. John Wiley & Sons, New York pp. 372-426.
  14. Ross,P.S., De Swart,R.L., Timmerman,H.H., Van Loveren,H., Vos,J.G., and Osterhaus,A.D.M.E. 1996. Immunotoxicological studies in the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina). In Modulators of Immune Responses, the Evolutionary Trail. Edited by J.S.Stolen, T.C.Fletcher, C.J.Bayne, C.J.Secombes, J.T.Zelikoff, L.E.Twerdok, and D.P.Anderson. SOS Publications, Fair Haven. pp. 579-584.
  15. Vos,J.G., Bloksma,N., De Heer,C., De Swart,R.L., Ross,P.S., and Van Loveren,H. 1995. Immunotoxicity of anthropogenic trace materials in the environment. In Proceedings 5. Statuskolloqium des Projectes Umwelt und Gesundheidt (PUG) des Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe 15/16-03-1995.
  16. Vos,J.G., De Heer,C., De Swart,R.L., Ross,P.S., and Van Loveren,H. 1995. Immunotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls and related compounds. In Proceedings joint international symposium “New trends in allergy IV” and “Environmental allergy and allergotoxicology III”. Springer-Verlag.
  17. Ross, P.S. 1986. “Environmental Education: A holistic approach”. in Science, Education and Social Change: Selected material from the third national conference of Canadian Student Pugwash. CSP Publications, Ottawa, Canada.
  18. Ross, P.S. 1988. The United Nations: Back on its Feet? International Perspectives, February issue.