Dr. Lance Barrett-Lennard, PhD

Senior Scientist and Cetacean Conservation Research Program Director

Dr. Barrett-Lennard did his PhD in Zoology at the University of British Columbia. After graduating, he worked as a research scientist at Fisheries and Oceans Canada before serving a 20-year term as head of the marine mammal research program at the Ocean Wise Conservation Association, housed at the Vancouver Aquarium. He is a co-director of Raincoast’s Cetacean Conservation Research Program.

Lance is interested in factors affecting the survival prospects of small marine mammal populations, including habitat degradation and fragmentation, inbreeding, anthropogenic disturbance such as underwater noise, and variation in prey abundance. He has conducted 33 seasons of field studies on killer whales, co-chaired the team that drafted the Canadian Resident Killer Whale Recovery Strategy, played a central role in a successful legal action that compelled the Canadian government to define and protect the species’ critical habitat, led the team that created of the widely-adopted Whale Report Alert System and is currently co-developing a new initiative called NoiseTracker to monitor and study the underwater soundscape in British Columbia.

One of his current projects is a study of body condition in relation to Chinook salmon abundance in Northern Resident killer whales using drone-based aerial photogrammetry;, a second is a study of genetic variability and mating systems in 12 killer whale populations in the NE Pacific. He has authored two theses and co-authored over 47 peer-reviewed papers and book chapters on killer whales, and additional publications on other marine mammal species.

lance [at] raincoast [dot] org

Peer reviewed publications

Couture, F., Oldford, G., Christensen, V., Barrett-Lennard, L., & Walters, C. 2022. Requirements and availability of prey for northeastern pacific southern resident killer whales. Plos One, 17(6), e0270523.

Stewart, J. D., Durban, J. W., Fearnbach, H., Barrett‐Lennard, L. G., et al. 2021. Survival of the fattest: linking body condition to prey availability and survivorship of killer whales. Ecosphere, 12, e03660.

Jourdain, E., Karoliussen, R., Curé, C., Massenet, M., Barrett-Lennard, L. and Ellis, G.M., 2019. A Case of Natural Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) Entrapment in Northern Norway: From Assessment to Rescue. Aquatic Mammals.  45: 14-20.

Apprill, A., Miller, C.A., Moore, M.J., Durban, J.W., Fearnbach, H., Barrett-Lennard, L. 2017. Extensive core microbiome in drone-captured whale blow supports a framework for health monitoring. American Society for Microbiology 2(5): e0019-17. 

Heise, K., Barrett-Lennard, L., Chapman, R., Dakin, T., Erbe, C., Hannay, D., Merchant, N., Pilkington, J., Thornton, S., Tollit, D. and Vagle, S., 2017. Proposed Metrics for the Management of Underwater Noise for Southern Resident Killer Whales. Coastal Ocean Report Series Volume 2017/2 (31 pp).  DOI: 10.25317/CORI20172

Vergara, V. and Barrett-Lennard, L., 2017. Call Usage Learning by a Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) in a Categorical Matching Task. International Journal of Comparative Psychology. 30:1-20.

Heise, K.A. and  Barrett-Lennard, LG. 2016. New Paradigm for Underwater Noise Management in Coastal Areas: Acoustic Compensation.  Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics. 27: 032001.

Durban, J.W., Fearnbach, H., Barrett-Lennard, L.G. 2016.  No Child Left Behind:  Pregnancy loss in killer whales.  Natural History 124: 14-15

Esteban, R., Verborgh, P., Gauffier, P., Giménez, J., Martín, V., Pérez-Gil, M., Tejedor, M., Almunia, J., Jepson, P.D., García-Tíscar, S. and Barrett-Lennard, L.G., 2016. Using a multi-disciplinary approach to identify a critically endangered killer whale management unit. Ecological Indicators, 66: 291-300.

Filatova, O.A., Samarra, F.I., Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Miller, P.J., Ford, J.K., Yurk, H., Matkin, C.O. and Hoyt, E., 2016. Physical constraints of cultural evolution of dialects in killer whales. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 140(5), pp.3755-3764.

Crossman, C. A., Taylor, E. B. and Barrett-Lennard, L. G. 2016.  Hybridization in the Cetacea: widespread occurrence and associated morphological, behavioral, and ecological factors. Ecology and Evolution, 6: 1293–1303. doi: 10.1002/ece3.1913

Heise, K., Yurk, H., Nordstrom, C. and Barrett-Lennard, L., 2016. A Permanent Soundscape Monitoring System for the Care of Animals in Aquaria. In The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life II (pp. 455-459). Springer New York.

Filatova, O.A., Miller, P.J., Yurk, H., Samarra, F.I., Hoyt, E., Ford, J.K., Matkin, C.O. and Barrett-Lennard, L.G., 2015. Killer whale call frequency is similar across the oceans, but varies across sympatric ecotypes. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 138: 251-257.

Morin, P.A., Parsons, K.M., Archer, F.I., Avila-Arcos, M.C., Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Dalla Rosa, L., Duchene, S., Durban, J.W., Ellis, G.M., Ferguson, S.H., Ford, J.K., Ford, M.J., Garilao, C., Gilbert, T.P., Kaschner, K., Matkin, C.O., Petersen, S.D., Robertson, K.M., Visser, I.N., Wade, P.R., Ho, S.Y.W., Foote, A.D. 2015. Geographic and temporal dynamics of a global radiation and diversification in the killer whale. Molecular Ecology 24:3964-3979. DOI:10.111/mec.13284

Durban, J.W., Fearnbach, H., Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Perryman, W.L. and Leroi, D.J., 2015. Photogrammetry of killer whales using a small hexacopter launched at sea 1. Journal of Unmanned Vehicle Systems, 3: 131-135. 

Crossman, C.A.,  Barrett-Lennard, L.G.,  Taylor, E. B G. 2016.  Population structure and intergeneric hybridization in harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena in British Columbia, Canada.  Endangered Species Research 26: 1-12. (DOI: 10.3354/esr00624)

Parsons, K.M., Durban, J.W., Burdin, A.W., Burkanov, V.N., Pitman, R.L., Barlow, J., Barrett-Lennard, L.G., LeDuc, R.  2013. Geographic patterns of genetic differentiation among killer whales in the Northern North Pacific.  Journal of Heredity 104: 737-754 

Filotava, O., Ford, J.K.B., Matktin, C.O., Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Burdin, A.M, Hoyt, E. 2013. Ultrasonic whistles of killer whales (Orcinus orca) recorded in the North Pacific.  Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 132: 3618-3621.  DOI: 10.1121/1.4764874

Ford, J.K.B., Durban, J.W., Ellis, G.M., Towers, J.R., Pilkington, J.F., Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Andrews, R.D. 2013.  New insights into the northward migration route of gray whales between Vancouver Island, British Columbia, and southeastern Alaska.  Marine Mammal Science.   DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2012.00572.x 

Riesch, R., Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Ellis, G.M., Ford, J.K., Deecke, V.B. 2012 Cultural traditions and the evolution of reproductive isolation: ecological speciation in killer whales? Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 106: 1-17. 

Filatova, O.A., Deecke, V.B., Ford, J.K.B., Matkin, C.O., Barrett-Lennard, L.G.’ Guzeev, M.A., Burdin, A.M., Hoyt, E. 2012. Call diversity in the North Pacific killer whale populations: implications for dialect evolution and population history.  Animal Behavior 83: 595-603.

Barrett-Lennard, L.  2011. Killer Whale Evolution: Populations, ecotypes, species, oh my. Whalewatcher (Journal of the American Cetacean Society) 40(1): 48-53. 

Barrett-Lennard, L., Heise, K. 2011. Killer Whale Conservation: The perils of life at the top of the food chain. Whalewatcher (Journal of the American Cetacean Society) 40(1) 58-62.

Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Matkin, C.O., Saulitis, E.L., Ellifrit, D., Durban, J.W. 2011. Predation of Gray Whales and Prolonged Feeding on Submerged Carcasses by Transient Killer Whales at Unimak Island, Alaska. Marine Ecology Progress Series 421: 229-241.

Lachmuth, C.,  Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Steyn, D.Q., Milsom, W.K. 2011. Estimation of southern resident killer whale exposure to exhaust emissions from whalewatching vessels and potential adverse health effects and toxicity thresholds. Marine Pollution Bulletin 62: 792-805.

Ford, J.K.B., Ellis, G.M., Matkin, C.O., Wetklo, M.H., Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Withler, R.E. 2011. Shark predation and tooth wear in a population of northeastern Pacific killer whales. Aquatic Biology 11: 213-224.

Vergara, V., Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Michaud, R. 2010.  What can captive whales tell us about their wild counterparts? Identification, usage, and ontogeny of contact calls in belugas (Delphinapterus leucas).  International Journal of Comparative Psychology 23: 278-309.

Yurk, H., Filatova, O,  Matkin, C.O. Barrett-Lennard, LG,  Brittain, M. 2010.  Sequential habitat use by two resident killer whale (Orcinus orca) clans in Resurrection Bay, Alaska, as determined by remote acoustic monitoring.  Aquatic Mammals 16: 67-78.

Deecke, V., Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Spong, P., Ford, J.K.B. 2010. The structure of stereotyped calls reflects kinship and social affiliation in resident killer whales (Orcinus orca).  Naturwissenschaften 97: 513-518. 

Leung, E.S., Vergara, V., Barrett-Lennard, L.G.  2010 Allonursing in captive belugas.  Zoo Biology 29: 1–5 (DOI: 10.1002/zoo.20295)

Kuker, K., Barrett-Lennard, L.G. 2010 A re-evaluation of the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) population decline in the Aleutian Islands shows little evidence for killer whale (Orcinus orca) predation. Mammal Review 40: 103-124 (DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2907.2009.00156.x)

Durban, J., Ellifrit, D., Dahlheim, M., Waite, J., Matkin, C.O., Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Ellis, G., Pitman, R., LeDuc, R., Wade, P.  2010.  Photographic mark-recapture analysis of clustered mammal-eating killer whales around the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska.  Marine Biology 157: 1591-1604. (DOI: 10.1007/s00227-010-1432-6).

Noël, M., Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Guinet, C., Dangerfield, N., Ross, P.S. 2009 Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in killer whales (Orcinus orca) from the Crozet Archipelago, southern Indian Ocean.  Marine Environmental Research 68 (2009) 196–202.

Heise, K., Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Ford, JKB. 2009.  Update COSEWIC assessment and status report on killer whales Orcinus orca in Canada.  Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa.  vi + 68pp.  

Heise, K. and L.G. Barrett-Lennard.  2008.  The calm before the storm: the need for baseline acoustic studies off the central and north coasts of British Columbia, Canada.  Bioacoustics 17: 248-250.

Vergara, V., Barrett-Lennard, L.G.  2008. Vocal development in a beluga calf.  Aquatic Mammals 34(1):123-143.

Guinet, C., Domenici, P., de Stephanis, R., Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Verborgh, P. 2007  Killer whale predation on bluefin tuna: exploring the hypothesis of the endurance-exhaustion technique.  Marine Ecology Progress Series  147:111-119.

Wade, P.R., Barrett-Lennard, L.G., et al.  2007. Killer whales and marine mammal trends in the North Pacific – a re-examination of evidence for sequential megafauna collapse and the prey-switching hypothesis.  Marine Mammal Science 23:766-802.

Krahn, M.M., Herman, D.P, Matkin, C.O., Durban, J.W., Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Burrows, D.G., Dalheim, M.E., Black, N., LeDuc, R.G., Wade, P.R. 2007.  Use of chemical tracers in assessing the diet and foraging regions of eastern North Pacific killer whales   Marine Environmental Research 63:91-114.

Matkin, C.O., Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Yurk, H., Ellifrit, D, Trites, A.W.  2007.  Ecotypic variation and predatory behavior of killer whales in the eastern Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Fisheries Bulletin 105:74-87.

Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Heise, K. 2006 The Natural History and Ecology of Killer Whales: Foraging Specialization in a Generalist Predator. In Estes, J.A., Brownell, R.L., DeMaster, D.P., Doak, D.F., Williams, T.M.  Whales, whaling and ocean ecosystems. University of California Press, Berkely, C.A. pp. 163-173.

Herman, D.P., Burrows, D.G., Wade, P.R.,  Durban, J.W. Matkin, C.O., LeDuc, R.G., Barrett-Lennard, L.G. Krahn, M.M.  2005Feeding ecology of eastern North Pacific killer whales from fatty acid, stable isotope, and organochlorine analyses of blubber biopsies.  Marine Ecology Progress Series 302: 275-291.

Rayne, S., Ikonomou, M.G., Ellis, G.M., Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Ross, P.S. 2004.  PBDEs, PBBs, and PCNs in Three communities of free-ranging killer whales (Orcinus orca) from the northeastern Pacific Ocean  Environmental Science and Technology 38: 4293-4299.

Heise, K., Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Saulitis, E.L.,  Matkin, C.O., Bain, D. 2003.  Examining the evidence for killer whale predation on Steller sea lions in British Columbia and Alaska.  Aquatic Mammals 29:325-334

Matkin, C.O., Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Ellis, G.  2002.  Killer whales and predation on Steller sea lions. In Demaster, D., Atkinson, S. (eds) Steller Sea Lion Decline:  Is it Food II?  61-66.  University of Alaska Sea Grant College Program, Volume AK-SG-02-02. 

Yurk, H., Barrett-Lennard L.G., Ford, J.K.B. and Matkin C.O. 2002. Cultural transmission within maternal lineages: Vocal clans in resident killer whales in Southern Alaska. Animal Behaviour 63:1103-1119.

Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Deecke, V.B., Ford, J.K.B., Yurk, H.  2001.  A sound approach to the study of culture.  Behavioural and Brain Sciences. 24:325-326. 

Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Ellis, G.M. 2001. Population structure and genetic variability in northeastern Pacific killer whales:  towards an assessment of population viability. Canadian Scientific Advisory Secretariat, Department of Fisheries and Oceans Document 2001/065. URL:  http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas/Csas/publications/ResDocs-DocRech/2001/2001_065_e.htm.

Guinet, C. Barrett-Lennard, L.G.,  Loyer, B. 2000. Coordinated  attack behaviour and prey sharing by killer whales at Crozet Archipelago: strategies for feeding on negatively-buoyant prey.  Marine Mammal Science 16:829-834.

Ross, P.S., Ellis, G.M.  Ikonomou, M.G., Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Addison, R.F. 2000.  High PCB concentrations in free-ranging Pacific killer whales, Orcinus orca:  effects of age, sex and dietary preference. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 40:504–515.

Saulitis, E.L.,  Matkin, C.O., Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Heise, K., Ellis, G.M. 2000.  Foraging strategies of sympatric killer whale (Orcinus orca) populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska.  Marine Mammal Science 16:94-109.

Ford, J.K.B., Ellis, G.M., Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Morton, A.B., Palm, R.S., and Balcomb, K.C. 1998. Dietary specialization in two sympatric populations of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in Coastal British Columbia and adjacent waters. Canadian Journal of Zoology  76:1456-1471.

Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Smith, T.G., and Ellis, G.M. 1996.  A cetacean biopsy system using lightweight pneumatic darts, and its effect on the behaviour of killer whales. Marine Mammal Science 12:14-27.

Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Heise, K.A., and Ford, J.K.B. 1996.  The mixed blessing of echolocation: differences in sonar use by fish-eating and mammal-eating killer whales.  Animal Behaviour 51:553-565.


Matkin, C.O., Ellis, G.M., Saulitis, E.L., Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Matkin, D.  1999.  Killer whales of Southern Alaska.  Phantom Press, Nanaimo, and North Gulf Oceanic Society, Homer, Alaska. 96 pp.

Selected conference and symposium papers

Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Thornton, S. 2016.  Plenty of fish in the sea: A new salmon management paradigm incorporating the nutritional needs of killer whales. Twenty Second Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals (Halifax October 22-27, 2017).

Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Durban, J., Fearnbach, H. 2016 Assessment of Resident Killer Whale Body Condition Using Aerial Photogrammetry and Possible Implications for Salmon Management. Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference.  (Vancouver Apr. 13-15, 2016).

Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Durban, J., Fearnbach, H., Perryman, W. LeRoi, D. Photogrammetry of killer whales using a small hexacopter launched at sea.  Twenty First Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals (San Francisco Dec. 13-18, 2015)

Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Rechsteiner, E.U; Birdsall, C., Sandilands,D., Smith, I.U., Phillips, A.V. The Blessing and Curse of Opportunistic data: a novel method of estimating volunteer observer effort. Twentieth Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals (Dunedin, NZ.  Dec. 9-13, 2013)

Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Birdsall, C.  Harbor Porpoise Distribution in Southern British Columbia Based on Opportunistic Sighting Reports  Harbour Porpoise Research Workshop  (March 7, 2013 Anacortes, Washington)

Lachmuth, C., Barrett-Lennard, L.G. Estimation of southern resident killer whale exposure to exhaust emissions from whale-watching vessels and potential adverse health effects and toxicity thresholds.  Nineteenth Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals (Tampa Nov. 27-Dec. 2, 2011)

Parsons, K. Barrett-Lennard, L.G. et al. Population structure & conservation of killer whales in the northern North Pacific.  Nineteenth Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals (Tampa Nov. 27-Dec. 2, 2011)

Barrett-Lennard, L.G. Saving Salmon for Endangered Killer Whales: A New Paradigm in Wildlife Management.  Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference.  (Vancouver Oct. 25-27, 2011).

Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Venton, M.  Sharing the wealth: a legal mandate for fishing plans that accommodate the needs of predators.  International Marine Conservation Congress (Victoria May 14-18, 2011).

Barrett-Lennard, L.G. Killer whales and critical habitat in Canada and the US:  different paths, similar endpoints.  24th International Congress for Conservation Biology (Edmonton, AB July 3-7, 2010).

Barrett-Lennard, L.G. Policy Implications of a Great Debate:  The Impact of Killer Whales on Prey Populations Lost in Translation: the Science-Policy Intersect (International Symposium; Quebec City Oct. 11, 2009).

Barrett-Lennard, L.G. Factors driving the evolutionary radiation of the killer whale species complex.  Eighteenth Biennial Meeting of the Society for Marine Mammalogy. (Quebec City Oct. 12-16, 2009). 

Matkin, C.O.,  Barrett-Lennard, L.G., et al. A killer whale potlatch: Evidence of ecological variability within an annual aggregation feeding on migrating gray whales Eighteenth Biennial Meeting of the Society for Marine Mammalogy. (Quebec City Oct. 12-16, 2009).

Yurk, H.,  Filatova, O, Matkin, C.O., Barrett-Lennard, L.G. Winter occurrence of resident killer whale pods in Resurrection Bay, Alaska, detected by passive acoustic monitoring.  Eighteenth Biennial Meeting of the Society for Marine Mammalogy. (Quebec City Oct. 12-16, 2009).

Phillips, A., Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Sandilands, D. 2008. Fostering stewardship of marine mammals in coastal communities: Insights from the B.C. Cetacean Sightings Network. Arctic Change Conference (Quebec City, Dec 9-12, 2008).

Vergara, V. and Barrett-Lennard, L.G.  Acoustic communication and vocal learning in belugas (Delphinapterus leucas):  what can captive whales teach us about their wild counterparts?  1st International Beluga Workshop.  (Valencia, Spain March 9-11, 2007).

Barrett-Lennard, L.G.  Social Learning in Killer Whales and the Spread of Depredation Behaviours.  International Symposium on  Fisheries Depredation by Killer and Sperm Whales.  (Pender Island, British Columbia Oct. 2-5, 2006).

Barrett-Lennard, L.G. The role of cultural innovation in the evolutionary radiation of cetaceans.  20th Annual Conference of the European Cetacean Society (Gdynia, Poland Apr. 2-7, 2006).

Barrett-Lennard, L.G.  Killer whales of the eastern north Pacific.  Invited presentation.  National Science Museum Symposium on Western North Pacific killer whales:  Evaluation of their Status and perspectives for conservation.  (Tokyo, Japan Feb. 16-17, 2006).

Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Matkin, C.O., Ellifrit, D.K.  The role of transient killer whales in structuring marine mammal communities in the Aleutian Islands: insights from predation hotspots.  Marine Science in Alaska Symposium (Anchorage Jan. 22-25, 2006).

Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Matkin, C.O., Ellifrit, D.K., Durban, J., Mazzuca, L.  Black and white versus gray:  estimating kill rates, consumption rates, and population-level impacts of transient killer whales feeding on gray whales.  Sixteenth Biennial Meeting of the Society for Marine Mammalogy. (San Diego  Dec. 12-16, 2005).

Durban, J., Ellifrit, D.,  Matkin, C.O., Barrett-Lennard, L.G.  (et al.).  Mammal-killer whales around SW Alaska:  transient or persistent?  Sixteenth Biennial Meeting of the Society for Marine Mammalogy. (San Diego  Dec. 12-16, 2005).

Heise, K.A., Barrett-Lennard, L.G.  Culturally significant units (CSUs) as a conservation tool for unique populations.  Sixteenth Biennial Meeting of the Society for Marine Mammalogy. (San Diego. Dec. 12-16, 2005).

Krahn, M.M., Herman, D.P., (et al), Barrett-Lennard, L.G., (et al.).  Feeding ecology of eastern north Pacific killer whales from fatty acid, stable isotope, and organochlorine contaminant profiles of biopsy samples.  Sixteenth Biennial Meeting of the Society for Marine Mammalogy. (San Diego  Dec. 12-16, 2005).

Kuker, K.J., Barrett-Lennard, L.G.  Sea otter behaviour:  looking for answers…did killer whales cause the western Alska sea otter decline?  Sixteenth Biennial Meeting of the Society for Marine Mammalogy. (San Diego  Dec. 12-16, 2005).

Barrett-Lennard, L.G. The culturally significant unit: definition, identification and conservation.  Ninth International Mammalogical Congress. (Sapporo, Japan July 31-Aug 5, 2005).

Barrett-Lennard, L.G. Low mtDNA variation in social odontocetes revisited: insights from killer whale behaviour and population structure.  Fifteenth Biennial Meeting of the Society for Marine Mammalogy. (Greensboro, N.C. Dec. 14-19, 2003).

Fung, C., Barrett-Lennard, L.G. Adaptive evolutionary divergence in sympatric killer whale (Orcinus orca) ecotypes. Fifteenth Biennial Meeting of the Society for Marine Mammalogy. (Greensboro, N.C. Dec. 14-19, 2003).

Vergara, V., Barrett-Lennard, L.G. Vocal development in a captive beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) calf.  Fifteenth Biennial Meeting of the Society for Marine Mammalogy. (Greensboro, N.C. Dec. 14-19, 2003).

Barrett-Lennard, L.G.  Natural history of killer whales.  Invited presentation.  Whales and Ocean Ecosystems Symposium (Santa Cruz, Ca. April 11-14, 2003).

Barrett-Lennard, L.G.  Dietary specialization in killer whales in western Alaska.  Marine Science in the Northeast Pacific Symposium (Anchorage, Ak. Jan. 13-17, 2003)

Barrett-Lennard, L.G. Social determinants of population structure in killer whales: insights from association patterns, genetics and acoustics.  Fourth International Orca Symposium (CEBC-CNRS, Villiers en Bois, France. Sept. 23-28, 2002). (expanded version of paper published in conference proceedings).

Barrett-Lennard, L.G. Whale of an appetite.  Invited lecture, Saving our Seas Forum, Monterey Bay Aquarium, Monterey, California  (April 24, 2002).

Barrett-Lennard, L.G.  Extreme population segregation in killer whales: the roles of inbreeding avoidance, song, and traditions. Invited Presentation. Sixteenth Annual Conference of the European Cetacean Society (Liège, Belgium April 7-11, 2002).

Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Ford, J.K.B., Ellis, G.M., Matkin, C.O. Mating patterns and inbreeding avoidance in non-dispersing resident killer whales.  Fourteenth Biennial Meeting of the Society for Marine Mammalogy. (Vancouver Nov. 29-Dec. 3, 2001).

Barrett-Lennard, L.G.  A Propensity for Isolationism:  Culture and Population Segregation in Killer Whales.  International Workshop on Culture in Marine Mammals (Vancouver Nov. 28, 2001).

Barrett-Lennard, L.G. Critical factors influencing the viability and recovery prospects of threatened killer whale populations.  Invited seminar, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, British Columbia. (May 9, 2001).

Barrett-Lennard, L.G. Population segregation, kin group fidelity, and mating patterns in northeastern Pacific killer whales.  Invited seminar, University of Alaska, Anchorage. (April 10, 2001).

Barrett-Lennard, L.G. Conservation of unique sub-populations. Conservation Lunch Series Seminar, Departments of Forestry and Zoology, University of British Columbia. (Mar. 29, 2001).

Barrett-Lennard, L.G.  Population segregation and mating patterns in eastern Pacific killer whales: a genetic analysis.  Invited seminar, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, British Columbia.  (Oct. 2, 2000).

Yurk, H., Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Ford, J.K.B.  The essence of killer whale societies:  culturally maintained kinship groups in a hierarchically structured community.  Animal Social Complexity and Intelligence Conference (Chicago Academy of Sciences). (Chicago. Aug 23-26, 2000).

Barrett-Lennard, L.G.  Cultural displacement and ecological speciation in killer whales.  Zoology Graduate Student Symposium, University of British Columbia. (Apr.1, 2000).

Barrett-Lennard, L.G.  Ecological character displacement of foraging specializations in the killer whale:  phylogeny in the making? Symposium on Marine Mammal Phylogenies (invited participant).  Thirteenth Biennial Meeting of the Society for Marine Mammalogy. (Maui. Nov. 29-Dec. 3, 1999).

Ross, P.S., Ellis, G.M., Ikonomou, M.G., Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Addison, R.F.  Toxic chemicals in free-ranging Pacific killer whales (Orcinus orca): a tale of sex, age and metabolism. Thirteenth Biennial Meeting of the Society for Marine Mammalogy. (Maui. Nov. 29-Dec. 3, 1999).

Matkin, C.O., Saulitis, E.L., Ellis, G.M, Barrett-Lennard, L.G.  The AT1 group of transient killer whales in southern Alaska:  a unique population in decline.  Thirteenth Biennial Meeting of the Society for Marine Mammalogy. (Maui. Nov. 29-Dec. 3, 1999).

Barrett-Lennard, L.G.  Population segregation, kinship, and mating patterns in British Columbian and Alaskan killer whales.  Invited seminar, Biological Sciences Department.  Humboldt State University. (Oct. 1, 1999).

Barrett-Lennard, L.G.  Inbreeding avoidance in the absence of dispersal.  Invited seminar, Zoology Department, University of Toronto. (Feb. 10, 1999).

Barrett-Lennard, L.G.  Intraspecific niche partitioning and behavioural character displacement.  Invited seminar,  Zoology Department, University of Toronto (Feb. 8, 1999).

Barrett-Lennard, L.G.  Sex, fraternization, and division of the resource pie:  patterns of relatedness in killer whale populations. Biodiversity, Ecology, and Evolution Seminar Series, University of British Columbia. (Sept. 30, 1998).

Barrett-Lennard, L.G.  Sympatric mammal-eating and fish-eating killer whale (Orcinus orca) populations: cultural differences limit or prevent gene flow.  Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Evolution. (Vancouver June 20-24, 1998).

Barrett-Lennard, L.G., Ford, J.K.B., Ellis, G.M., Matkin, C.O.  Mitochondrial DNA diversity within and between three sympatric ecological forms of killer whale (Orcinus orca). Annual Meeting of the Society for Conservation Biology. (Victoria June 6-9, 1997).

Barrett-Lennard, L.G. The mixed blessing of echolocation: sonar and the maintenance of population segregation in killer whales. Eleventh Biennial Conference on the Biology of

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