A polar bear rolls on their back with their mouth open, and there's a graph floating in the top right.

Research: Trophy hunters pay more to target larger-bodied carnivores

|
The behaviour of human hunters diverges from other animals. Other predators tend to target vulnerable individuals in prey populations. Humans, often males, tend to hunt large, reproductive-aged individuals. In the case of guided trophy hunting these species are likely perceived as costly, by increasing failure risk and risk of injury, and providing lower nutritional returns.
Read More Research: Trophy hunters pay more to target larger-bodied carnivores
An expansive view of a Raincoast scientist working in the field in the Fraser River estuary.

Habitat use by juvenile salmon, other migratory fish, and resident fish species underscores the importance of estuarine habitat mosaics

|
Pacific salmon, especially Chinook and Chum, reside and feed in estuaries during downstream migrations. But the extent to which they rely on estuaries, and which habitats within estuaries, is not well understood. We need to understand this complexity if we are going to enact effective conservation policies. This is especially important in urban systems where habitat loss is ongoing, and at different rates across the estuarine mosaic. The Fraser River estuary, for example, supports a multitude of fish species…
Read More Habitat use by juvenile salmon, other migratory fish, and resident fish species underscores the importance of estuarine habitat mosaics
A wolf rests on the beach in the Great Bear Rainforest, with a chart from Figure 1 overlaid.

Research: Publication reform to safeguard wildlife from researcher harm

|
Scientists from Raincoast Conservation Foundation, University of Victoria, Alpha Wildlife Research & Management, and University of Saskatchewan reviewed more than 200 peer-reviewed academic journals that commonly publish wildlife research, evaluating the presence and comprehensiveness of ‘Animal Care’ requirements of authors. The study, “Publication reform to safeguard wildlife from researcher harm,” published as an open access article…
Read More Research: Publication reform to safeguard wildlife from researcher harm
A giant pile of bison bones loom over a person standing beside it.

Research: Differentiating between regulation and hunting as conservation interventions

|
Wildlife conservation literature and public discourse, too often gloss over the important difference between hunting and the regulation of hunting. This is so common that there is a persistent, misinformed idea that extinctions have been avoided through the act of hunting. Historically, the regulation of hunting, not hunting itself, has averted extinction…
Read More Research: Differentiating between regulation and hunting as conservation interventions
A collage of images and graphs from a published peer reviewed article on salmonid species diversity and bear health: Hakai, Raincoast, University of Victoria, and Spirit Bear Foundation logos at the bottom.

Salmon species diversity predicts salmon consumption by terrestrial wildlife

|
Research by scientists at Spirit Bear Research Foundation, Raincoast Conservation Foundation, and the University of Victoria, led by Christina Service, shows that salmon species diversity – the number of spawning salmon species available – is far more important and positively related to salmon consumption in coastal black bears than biomass abundance…
Read More Salmon species diversity predicts salmon consumption by terrestrial wildlife
Maps of marine birds distributions and densities overlaid onto a tufted puffin.

Predictions from machine learning ensembles: marine bird distribution and density on Canada’s Pacific coast

|
In February of 2017, a team of researchers, including Raincoast senior scientist Dr. Paul Paquet, from five research facilities published their findings in Marine Ecology Progress Series: “Predictions from machine learning ensembles: Marine bird distribution and density on Canada’s Pacific coast”…
Read More Predictions from machine learning ensembles: marine bird distribution and density on Canada’s Pacific coast
FACETS, Canadian Science Publishing, Patagonia Provisions, University of Montana and Raincoast: salmon research.

Criteria for a good catch: A conceptual framework to guide sourcing of sustainable salmon fisheries

|
The proposed new framework for identifying sustainably harvested salmon suggests that individual retailers develop criteria (or adopt others) that comply with this place-based foundation. Patagonia Provisions is one retailer requesting this high standard of certification because their customers want higher standards than are currently available…
Read More Criteria for a good catch: A conceptual framework to guide sourcing of sustainable salmon fisheries
Journal of Mammalogy cover for research published on mismeasured risks of poaching due to bias.

Mismeasured mortality: correcting estimates of wolf poaching in the United States

|
This research tests and rejects the long-held idea that data lost when known animals disappear were unbiased, under conditions common to most, if not all, studies using marked animals. Published government estimates are affected by the biases discovered. And so government estimates of systemically underestimating risks of poaching…
Read More Mismeasured mortality: correcting estimates of wolf poaching in the United States

Peer reviewed publications

2014

Adams, M., Carpenter, J., Housty, J., Neasloss, D., Paquet, P., Walkus, J. and Darimont, C.T. 2014. Towards increased engagement between academic and indigenous community partners in ecological research. Ecol Soc.

Robinson, JP, White, ER, Wiwchar, LD., Claar, DC., Suraci, JP and Baum, J.K. 2014. The limitations of diversity metrics in directing global marine conservation. Marine Policy, 48, 123-125.

Nelson, M.C. and Reynolds, J.D. 2014. Time-Delayed Subsidies: Interspecies Population Effects in Salmon. PloS one, 9(6), e98951.

Service, C.N. Adams, M. S., Artelle, K.A., Paquet, P., Grant, L.V., and Darimont, C.T. 2014. Indigenous Knowledge and Science Unite to Reveal Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Distributional Shift in Wildlife of Conservation Concern. PloS one, 9(7), e101595.

Favaro, B., Claar, D.C., Fox, C.H., Freshwater, C., Holden, J.J. and Roberts, A. 2014. Trends in Extinction Risk for Imperilled Species in Canada. PloS one,9(11), e113118.

Darimont, C.T. and Child, K.R. 2014. What enables size-selective trophy hunting of wildlife? PloS one, 9(8), e103487.

Stronen, A.V., Navid, E.L., Quinn, M.S., Paquet, P.C., Bryan, H.M., and Darimont, C.T. 2014. Population genetic structure of gray wolves (Canis lupus) in a marine archipelago suggests island-mainland differentiation consistent with dietary niche. BMC ecology, 14(1), 11.

Brown, T.M., Fisk, A.T., Helbing, C.C. and Reimer, K.J. 2014. Polychlorinated biphenyl profiles in ringed seals (Pusa Hispida) reveal historical contamination by a military radar station in Labrador, Canada. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 33(3), 592-601.

Brown, T.M., Ross, P.S., Reimer, K.J., Veldhoen, N., Dangerfield, N.J., Fisk, A.T., and Helbing, C.C. (2014). PCB Related Effects Thresholds As Derived through Gene Transcript Profiles in Locally Contaminated Ringed Seals (Pusa hispida). Environmental science & technology, 48(21), 12952-12961.

Housty, W.G., Noson, A., Scoville, G.W., Boulanger, J., Jeo, R.M., Darimont, C.T., and Filardi, C. E. 2014. Grizzly bear monitoring by the Heiltsuk people as a crucible for First Nation conservation practice. Ecology and Society, 19(2), 70.

Bryan, H.M., Darimont, C.T., Paquet, P.C., Wynne-Edwards, K.E. and Smits, J.E. 2014. Stress and reproductive hormones reflect inter-specific social and nutritional conditions mediated by resource availability in a bear–salmon system. Conservation Physiology, 2(1), cou010.

Brown, T. M., Luque, S., Sjare, B., Fisk, A.T., Helbing, C.C. and Reimer, K.J. 2014. Satellite Telemetry Informs PCB Source Apportionment in a Mobile, High Trophic Level Marine Mammal: The Ringed Seal (Pusa hispida). Environmental science & technology, 48(22), 13110-13119.

Fox, C.H., El-Sabaawi, R., Paquet, P.C. and Reimchen, T. E. 2014. Pacific herring Clupea pallasii and wrack macrophytes subsidize semi-terrestrial detritivores. Marine ecology. Progress series, 495, 49-64.

Bryan, H.M., Smits, J.E., Koren, L., Paquet, P.C., Wynne‐Edwards, K.E. and Musiani, M. 2014. Heavily hunted wolves have higher stress and reproductive steroids than wolves with lower hunting pressure. Functional Ecology.

Suraci, J.P., Clinchy, M., Zanette, L.Y., Currie, C.M., and Dill, L.M. 2014. Mammalian mesopredators on islands directly impact both terrestrial and marine communities. Oecologia, 176(4), 1087-1100.

2013

Bryan, H.M., Darimont, C.T., Paquet, P.C., Wynne-Edwards, K. E., and Smits, J. E. 2013. Stress and reproductive hormones in grizzly bears reflect nutritional benefits and social consequences of a salmon foraging niche. PloS one8(11), e80537.

Artelle, K.A., Anderson, S.C., Cooper, A.B., Paquet, P.C., Reynolds, J.D., and Darimont, C.T. 2013. Confronting uncertainty in wildlife management: performance of grizzly bear management. PloS one8(11), e78041.

Noss, R., Nash, R., Paquet, P. and Soulé, M. 2013. Humanity’s domination of nature is part of the problem: A response to Kareiva and Marvier. BioScience,63(4), 241-242.

Reimchen, T.E. and Fox, C.H. 2013. Fine-scale spatiotemporal influences of salmon on growth and nitrogen signatures of Sitka spruce tree rings. BMC ecology13(1), 38.

Vander Wal, E., Edye, I., Paquet, P.C., Coltman, D.W., Bayne, E., Brook, R.K. and Andrés, J.A. 2013. Juxtaposition between host population structures: implications for disease transmission in a sympatric cervid community. Evolutionary applications6(7), 1001-1011.

Christensen, J.R., Yunker, M.B., MacDuffee, M. and Ross, P.S. 2013. Plant Consumption by grizzly bears reduces biomagnifications of salmon – derived polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and organochlorine pesticides. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 32(5), 995-1005. *    (* Selected as ETC’s best paper of 2013; see ETC Vol. 33, No. 7, July 2014)

Price, M.H.H., Morton, A., Eriksson, J.G. and Volpe, J.P. 2013. Fish Processing Facilities: New Challenge to Marine Biosecurity in Canada. Journal of aquatic animal health25(4), 290-294.

Price, M.H., Glickman, B.W. and Reynolds, J.D. 2013. Prey selectivity of Fraser River sockeye salmon during early marine migration in British Columbia. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society142(4), 1126-1133.

Bryan, H.M., Adams, A. G., Invik, R.M., Wynne-Edwards, K.E. and Smits, J.E. 2013. Hair as a meaningful measure of baseline cortisol levels over time in dogs. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS52(2), 189.

2012

Levi, T., Darimont, C.T., MacDuffee, M., Mangel, M., Paquet, P. and Wilmers, C. C. 2012. Using grizzly bears to assess harvest-ecosystem tradeoffs in salmon fisheries. PLoS biology10(4), e1001303.

Bryan, H.M., Darimont, C.T., Hill, J. E., Paquet, P.C., Thompson, R.A., Wagner, B. and Smits, J.E. 2012. Seasonal and biogeographical patterns of gastrointestinal parasites in large carnivores: wolves in a coastal archipelago. Parasitology139(06), 781-790.

Service, C.N., Nelson, T.A., Paquet, P.C., Mclnnes, W. S. and Darimont, C. T. 2012. Pipelines and Parks: Evaluating External Risks to Protected Areas from the Proposed Northern Gateway Oil Transport Project. Natural Areas Journal32(4), 367-376.

Price, M.H.H. and Reynolds, J. D. 2012. Salmon farms as a source of sea lice on juvenile wild salmon; reply to the comment by Jones and Beamish. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences69(1), 204-207.

Nelson, B., Hebblewhite, M., Ezenwa, V., Shury, T., Merrill, E.H., Paquet, P.C. and Webb, N. 2012. Prevalence of antibodies to canine parvovirus and distemper virus in wolves in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Journal of wildlife diseases48(1), 68-76.

Stronen, A.V., Forbes, G.J., Paquet, P.C., Goulet, G., Sallows, T. and Musiani, M. 2012. Dispersal in a plain landscape: short-distance genetic differentiation in southwestern Manitoba wolves, Canada. Conservation Genetics13(2), 359-371.

Stronen, A.V., Schumaker, N.H., Forbes, G.J., Paquet, P.C. and Brook, R.K. 2012. Landscape resistance to dispersal: simulating long-term effects of human disturbance on a small and isolated wolf population in southwestern Manitoba, Canada. Environmental monitoring and assessment184(11), 6923-6934.

Stronen, A.V., Tessier, N., Jolicoeur, H., Paquet, P.C., Henault, M., Villemure, M., … and Lapointe, F.J. 2012. Canid hybridization: contemporary evolution in human‐modified landscapes. Ecology and evolution2(9), 2128-2140.

2011

DellaSala, D.A., Moola, F., Alaback, P., Paquet, P.C., Schoen, J.W., Noss, R.F. 2011. Temperate and boreal rainforests of the Pacific Coast of North America. In Temperate and boreal rainforests of the world: Ecology and conservation (pp. 42-81). Island Press/Center for Resource Economics.

Price, M.H., Proboszcz, S. L., Routledge, R.D., Gottesfeld, A.S., Orr, C., and Reynolds, J.D. 2011. Sea louse infection of juvenile sockeye salmon in relation to marine salmon farms on Canada’s west coast. PloS one6(2), e16851.

Bryan, H.M., Darimont, C.T., Paquet, P.C., Ellis, J. A., Goji, N., Gouix, M. and Smits, J. E. 2011. Exposure to infectious agents in dogs in remote coastal British Columbia: Possible sentinels of diseases in wildlife and humans. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research75(1), 11.

Price, M.H.H., and Reynolds, J. D. 2011. Salmon farms as a source of sea lice on juvenile wild salmon; reply to the comment by Jones and Beamish. Comment appears in Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences69(1), 204-207.

Stronen, A.V., Schumaker, N.H., Forbes, G.J., Paquet, P.C. and Brook, R.K. 2012. Landscape resistance to dispersal: simulating long-term effects of human disturbance on a small and isolated wolf population in southwestern Manitoba, Canada. Environmental monitoring and assessment184(11), 6923-6934.

Williams, R., Ashe, E. and O’Hara, P.D. 2011. Marine mammals and debris in coastal waters of British Columbia, Canada. Marine Pollution Bulletin62(6), 1303-1316.

2010

M.H.H. Price, A. Morton, and J.D. Reynolds. 2010. Evidence of farm-induced parasite infestations on wild juvenile salmon in multiple regions of coastal British Columbia, Canada. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 67: 1925–1932   Journal Link   (Volume 67:1925-1932)

Darimont, Chris T., Heather M. Bryan, Stephanie M. Carlson, Morgan D. Hocking, Misty MacDuffee, Paul C. Paquet, Michael H.H. Price, Thomas E. Reimchen, John D. Reynolds, and Christopher C. Wilmers. 2010.  Salmon for Protected Terrestrial Areas. Conservation Letters Vol 3 (6): 379–389.  Journal link (Volume 3, Issue 6)

Paquet, P.C. and C.T. Darimont. 2010. Wildlife conservation meets animal welfare: two sides of the same coin? Animal Welfare 19: 177-190

2009

MacDuffee, M and E. MacIssac. 2009.  Applications of paleolimnology to sockeye salmon nursery laks and ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska: Proceedings of a workshop at the Institute of Ocean Sciences.  Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2847.

Muñoz-Fuentes, V., C.T. Darimont, R.K. Wayne, P.C. Paquet, and J.A. Leonard.  2009. The genetic legacy of extirpation and re-colonization in Vancouver Island wolves. Conservation Genetics. 11(2): 547-556  (Journal link: Volume 11, Number 2)

Munoz -Fuentes, V., C.T. Darimont, R.K. Wayne, P.C. Paquet and J.A. Leonard.  2009. Ecological factors drive genetic differentiation in British Columbia gray wolves. Journal of Biogeography. 36 (8): 1516-1531  (Journal link Volume 36, Issue 8)

Darimont, C.T., S.M. Carlson, M.T. Kinnison, P.C. Paquet, T.E. Reimchen, and C.C. Wilmers. 2009. Reply to Koons: Harvest-related trait changes in an increasingly variable world. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (On-line Letters).

Darimont, C.T., S.M. Carlson, M.T. Kinnison, P.C. Paquet, T.E. Reimchen and C.C. Wilmers. 2009.  Human predators outpace other agents of trait change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106: 952-954.

Darimont, C.T., P.C. Paquet and T.E. Reimchen. 2009. Landscape heterogeneity and marine subsidy generate extensive niche variation in a terrestrial carnivore. Journal of Animal Ecology 79: 126-133

2008

Price, M.H.H., C.T. Darimont, N.F. Temple, and M. MacDuffee. 2008. Ghost Runs: Management and status assessment of Pacific salmon returning to British Columbia’s central and north coasts. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 65:2712-2718

Darimont, C.T., T.E. Reimchen, H. Bryan, and P.C. Paquet. 2008. Faecal-centric approaches to wildlife ecology and conservation; methods, data and ethics. Wildlife Biology in Practice  4:73-87

Darimont, C.T., P.C. Paquet, and T.E. Reimchen. 2008. Spawning salmon disrupt tight trophic coupling between wolves and ungulate prey in coastal British Columbia.  BMC Ecology 8:14

2007

Christensen, J.R., M. MacDuffee, M.B Yunker, and P.S. Ross. 2007. Hibernation associated changes in persistent organic pollutants (POP) levels and patterns in British Columbia grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Environmental Science and Technology. 41: 1834-1840

Darimont, C.T., P.C. Paquet, and T.E. Reimchen. 2007. Stable isotopic niche predicts fitness of prey in a wolf-deer system. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 90: 125-137.

Thomas, L., R. Williams, and D. Sandilands, D.  2007.  Designing line transect surveys for complex survey regions. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management. 9(1):1-13,

Williams, R. and L. Thomas. 2007. Distribution and abundance of marine mammals in the coastal waters of British Columbia, Canada. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management. 9(1):15-28,

2006

Bryan, H.M, C.T. Darimont, T.E. Reimchen, and P.C. Paquet. 2006. Early ontogenetic diet of wolves. Canadian Field-Naturalist 20: 61-66.

Paquet, P.C., S.M. Alexander, P.L. Swan, and C.T. Darimont. 2006. The influence of natural landscape fragmentation and resource availability on connectivity and distribution of marine gray wolf populations on the Central Coast, British Columbia, Canada. In Crooks, K. and M.A. Sanjayan (Eds.) Connectivity Conservation. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, UK.

2005

Christensen, J.R., M. MacDuffee, R.W. MacDonald, M. Whiticar, and P.S. Ross. 2005. Persistent Organic Pollutants in British Columbia Grizzly Bears: Consequence of divergent diets. Environmental Science and Technology.  39: 6952-6960

Darimont, C.T., P.C. Paquet, T.E. Reimchen, and V. Crichton. 2005. Range expansion by moose into coastal temperate rainforests of British Columbia, Canada. Diversity and Distributions 11: 235-239.

Paquet, P.C., C.T. Darimont, F.M. Moola, and C. Genovali. 2005.  Connectivity where the land meets the sea; preserving the last of the best. Wild Earth 14: 21-25.

Price, M.H.H., C.T. Darimont, N.N. Winchester, and P.C. Paquet. 2005. Facts from faeces: prey remains in wolf faeces revise occurrence records for mammals of British Columbia’s coastal archipelago. Canadian Field-Naturalist 119: 192-196.

2002-2004

Darimont, C.T., M.H.H. Price, N.N. Winchester, J. Gordon-Walker, and P.C. Paquet. 2004. Predators in natural fragments: foraging ecology of wolves in British Columbia’s central and north coast archipelago. Journal of Biogeography 31: 1867-1877.

Darimont, C.T., T.E. Reimchen and P.C. Paquet. 2003. Foraging behaviour by gray wolves on salmon streams in coastal British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 81: 349-353.

Darimont, C.T., and P.C. Paquet. 2002. The gray wolves, Canis lupus, of British Columbia’s central and north coast: distribution and conservation assessment. Canadian Field-Naturalist 116: 416-422.

Darimont, C.T. and T.E. Reimchen. 2002. Intra-hair stable isotope analysis implies seasonal shift to salmon in gray wolf diet. Canadian Journal of Zoology 80: 1638-1642.