Sidney, BC. The critically endangered Southern Resident killer whales (SRKWs) that inhabit the Pacific Coast of Canada and the United States are balancing on a knife-edge. A study published today shows a 25% chance that these iconic whales could be lost within the next 100 years. With appropriate and resolute actions, however, this risk of extinction could be significantly reduced.
An international team of renowned scientists representing academic and conservation organizations in three countries has published a peer-reviewed paper in the journal Scientific Reports evaluating the relative importance of known threats that endanger Southern Resident killer whales. This population has experienced almost no growth over the past four decades and has declined in the last two decades.
The team, whose expertise included killer whale behaviour, ecology, bioacoustics, and population biology, was led by Robert Lacy, Ph.D., Conservation Scientist for the Chicago Zoological Society, and Paul Paquet, Ph.D., from the Raincoast Conservation Foundation. Together, the team assessed the viability of this small population of genetically isolated killer whales, which subsists largely on salmon. To evaluate the severity of known coast wide threats to the population (nutritional stress, pollutants, excessive noise), the new research considered more than 40 years of data collected by the Center for Whale Research regarding killer whale survival and reproduction. Then, by simulating various combinations and levels of these threats, the capacity for the population to recover was examined under different future scenarios.
“Not surprisingly, we found that SRKWs face a highly uncertain future with a low probability of recovery under existing conditions of food availability, pollutants, and vessel noise and disturbance,” said lead author Robert Lacy. “Conversely, increasing Chinook salmon abundance combined with reducing vessel noise and disturbance significantly increases the whales’ likelihood of long-term survival, reducing the risk of extinction.”
“The noises caused by commercial and recreational vessels of all types mask the frequencies used by killer whales to detect salmon and communicate. In addition, vessel disturbance changes the behaviour of whales, which also reduces their foraging efficiency,” said co-author Christopher Clark, PhD. “Killer whales need habitat full of salmon, but they also need a habitat quiet enough to find their food. For this already food-stressed population, reduced feeding leads to lower birthrates and lower survival.”
“Our study reconfirms that Chinook salmon abundance has the greatest influence on SRKW population health, but also demonstrates the powerful interaction of salmon abundance with vessel noise and disturbance,” noted co-author, Rob Williams, PhD. “We found that recovery of SRKWs requires a 30% increase in Chinook salmon above average levels. Or, we could double our conservation impact by increasing Chinook salmon abundance by 15% and reducing noise and disturbance by half.”
Unfortunately, key threats to the population are predicted to increase. This includes an expected increase in noise because of increased shipping and a predicted decrease in the abundance of Chinook salmon because of climate change.
“The most important message from our study is that with appropriate and resolute actions, the chance of survival for these iconic whales over the next 100 years can be significantly improved,” said co-author Paul Paquet. Canadians, Americans, and global citizens care about the future of these whales. “We now have common sense, knowledge-based guidelines for this population’s recovery. They just need to be put in place and implemented,” Paquet concluded.
Link to the paper: www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-14471-0
Authors, Affiliations and Email Contacts
Bob Lacy, Chicago Zoological Society, Brookfield IL 60513 USA;
Rob Williams Oceans Initiative, Seattle WA 98102 USA;
Erin Ashe Oceans Initiative, Seattle WA 98102 USA;
Lauren Brent, College of Life & Environmental Sciences; University of Exeter, U.K.,
Ken Balcomb, Center for Whale Research, Friday Harbor, WA 98250 USA;
Christopher Clark, Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850 USA;
Darren Croft, College of Life & Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, U.K.;
Deborah Giles, Center for Whale Research, Friday Harbor, WA 98250 USA;
Misty MacDuffee, Raincoast Conservation Foundation, Sidney BC Canada;
Paul C. Paquet, Raincoast Conservation Foundation, Sidney BC Canada;
About the Chicago Zoological Society
The mission of the Chicago Zoological Society is to inspire conservation leadership by connecting people with wildlife and nature. The Chicago Zoological Society is a private nonprofit organization that operates Brookfield Zoo on land owned by the Forest Preserves of Cook County. The Society is known throughout the world for its international role in animal population management and wildlife conservation. Its Center for the Science of Animal Care and Welfare is at the forefront of animal care that strives to discover and implement innovative approaches to zoo animal management. Brookfield Zoo is the first zoo in the world to be awarded the Humane Certified™ certification mark for the care and welfare of its animals, meeting American Humane Association’s rigorous certification standards. For further information, visit CZS.org.
About the Raincoast Conservation Foundation
Raincoast is a team of conservationists and scientists empowered by our research to protect the lands, waters, and wildlife of coastal British Columbia. We use rigorous, peer-reviewed science and community engagement to further our conservation objectives. As a conservation science organization that operates a research lab, research field station, and a research/sailing vessel, we are unique in Canada.