Forest Conservation Program

Coastal Douglas-fir forests and associated habitats are among the most threatened ecosystems in the country.

Photo by Alex Harris /
Raincoast Conservation Foundation.

Raincoast’s Forest Conservation Program is focused on addressing biodiversity loss, climate change and other human-caused stresses on Coastal Douglas-fir (CDF) habitats. With a limited geographic extent, including only the southeastern edge of Vancouver Island, the Gulf Islands, and a sliver of BC’s mainland, it is essential that these ecosystems are protected and conserved before it is too late. 

Hummingbird up close.
Photo by Oliver Tweedie.
A Rough-skinned newt moves slowly over the forest floor.
Photo by Alex Harris / Raincoast Conservation Foundation.

Understanding biodiversity loss, climate change, and anthropogenic impacts

Globally unique to the south coast of British Columbia, this collection of highly diverse ecosystems includes sand dunes, estuaries, Garry oak meadows, and rocky outcrops, among many other ecological communities. Forests here are characterized by tree species like coastal Douglas-fir, western red cedar, and arbutus. The CDF covers less than 1% of provincial land area, with the Salish Sea’s Gulf Islands hosting over 30% of its provincial extent.

Almost all of the original CDF forests have been logged since the early 1900s and a further 30% of second-growth has been converted to rural, urban, agricultural, and industrial use since 2008. The province’s last State of the Forests report, released in 2010, found that the CDF is BC’s most converted zone, with nearly twice the amount of deforested and fragmented land compared to the next most converted zone. This includes the province’s highest road density that profoundly fragments CDF habitats. Currently, 127 native plant and animal species characteristic to CDF ecosystems are on the provincial “Red” list. This includes iconic ecological communities  characterized by the presence of arbutus and Garry oak. Further, recent anecdotal reports of deterioration of arbutus, western redcedar, grand fir and coastal Douglas-fir indicate that climate change is already influencing these important ecosystems.

Informed advocacy and community engagement

Using Raincoast’s signature approach of informed advocacy, the Forest Conservation Program combines community engagement with science and policy review to achieve tangible conservation outcomes. Our work includes working with local Nations, civic governments, organizations, and community members to slow and reverse the destruction of these fragile, ecologically important, and culturally significant places through advocacy, community science initiatives, ecological investigation, and most recently, permanent land protection through property acquisition. Our preliminary focus is on North (S,DÁYES in the SENĆOŦEN language of the W̱SÁNEĆ) and South Pender Islands. As our work expands to other Gulf Islands, we commit to honoring the lands and culture of additional First Nations who call these Islands home. 

Oregon grape plant with rain on it.
Photo by Alex Harris / Raincoast Conservation Foundation.
Mushroom in the sun with spores flying out.
Photo by Alex Harris.

W̱SÁNEĆ territory

In the southern Gulf Islands and Saanich Peninsula, much of the Coastal Douglas-fir forests and associated habitats exist within W̱SÁNEĆ territory. These unceded lands have been inhabited by the W̱SÁNEĆ people, also known as the Saltwater or Coast Salish People, since time immemorial. Brought here by the creator, XÁLS, following the great flood, the W̱SÁNEĆ people were given the responsibility of caring for their relatives: the Islands of the Salish Sea. As such, in addition to their ecological significance, these habitats hold tremendous cultural and spiritual value.

Two ravens on a branch in a misty estuary.

The Story of the CDF

A series of articles curated by Forest Conservation Program Director Shauna Doll and contributed to by expert Traditional Knowledge Holders, ecologists, conservation scientists, social scientists, ethnobotanists, and others to increase understanding of some of the most threatened ecological communities in British Columbia.

Recent articles

Bird on a tree with a bug in its mouth.

Canada releases the 2030 National Biodiversity Strategy and Nature Accountability Bill –a positive step, but one that falls short 

In 2022, Canada and 196 other countries committed to achieving 23 targets that aim to halt and…

Drone image of Sumas Prairie farm fields flooded.

New study identifies the cost of restoring the Sumas Xhotsa (Lake) as a tool for reconciliation, climate adaptation, and ecosystem restoration

In collaboration with Indigenous leaders, lawyers, and researchers from the Indigenous-led Lower Fraser Fisheries Alliance, the Martin…

A group of youth walking along a hill.

Reflecting on our eighth year of Salish Sea Emerging Stewards programming  

It has been eight years since we launched our education program, the Salish Sea Emerging Stewards program,…

People looking into a net in the middle of one of our breaches in the North Arm Jetty.

Monitoring salmon in our latest breach in the North Arm Jetty

In December we completed construction on our second breach in the North Arm Jetty. This 30-meter wide…

An oil tanker at rest off the BC coast.

Federal promises made for endangered whales during TMX approval are unfulfilled

Six conservation groups are urging the federal government to implement an Emergency Order — a mechanism that…

Summary of key facts about southeast Alaska interception fisheries

Summary of key facts about southeast Alaska interception fisheries

Some Alaskan salmon fisheries are recognized models of sustainability. However, other Alaskan salmon fisheries, particularly those in…

Looking uphill in a forest with moss and grass on the forest floor and tries stretching into the sky.

Wildfire, watersheds, and landscape change

In regions across Canada, forests and fire co-evolved alongside each other over millennia. In many cases, this…

Using drones to study killer whale health

Using drones to study killer whale health

Our photogrammetry research project, ongoing for over fifteen years, involves taking bird’s eye photos of known whales,…

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